Sign Up Free

Welcome to Hookup App - Your source for arrangements in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne

The #1 Hookup Dating Website in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne

Meet Generous Men with Real Budgets & Ridiculously Beautiful Girls in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne, France. tryhookup.com is the leading dating website where successful and beautiful people find Mutually Beneficial Relationships(TM). If you are tired of dating the losers or the ordinary, give us a try and see why our website is called the "Best Fishing Hole" by the New York Times.

tryhookup.com features only real people. We are so confident you will enjoy our service, we are currently offering a FREE TRIAL. Life is short, JOIN NOW and start living.

Join Now

Members Near Renault, Champagne-Ardenne

Hookup App
The Definitive Guide to Hookup and Mutually Beneficial Relationships
Written by our founder, this book smashes old stereotypes. Honest and frank about sex, money, and issues of morality, it gives us the real dope on the modern Hookup - not a rich decrepit 'captain of industry' exploiting empty-headed vixens for hedonistic pleasure, but a mature gentleman seeking fun and pleasure with women of substance. Wade doesn't champion a cause - he knows these arrangements aren't everyone's cup of... ahem... sugar. He simply prepares readers to navigate the online world of arrangements, avoiding scams and frauds, and learning to maximize satisfaction.

Accolades

Renault cars have performed well in the European Car of the Year awards. The Clio is the only car since the prize's conception in 1964 to win the award twice. * 1966: Renault 16 * 1982: Renault 9 * 1991: Renault Clio * 1997: Renault Scénic * 2003: Renault Mégane II * 2006: Renault Clio III The Renault 12 (1970), Renault 5 (1972), Renault 20 (1976), Renault 25 (1985) and Renault Laguna (2002) have all achieved runners-up in spot in the competition. Renaults most recent models are well known for their safety, all but 4 of the current models have achieved the maximum 5-star rating by the EuroNCAP crash-test assessment programme. Renault has regularly topped the French car sales charts, fighting off fierce competition from Citroën and Peugeot.

Between the world wars (1919–38)

Louis Renault enlarged the scope of his company after 1918, producing agricultural and industrial machinery. However, Renault struggled to compete with the increasingly popular small, affordable "people's cars", while problems with the stock market and the workforce also adversely affected the company's growth. Renault also had to find a way to distribute its vehicles more efficiently. In 1920, he signed one of its first distribution contracts with Gustave Gueudet, an entrepreneur from northern France. The pre-First World War cars had a distinctive front shape caused by positioning the radiator behind the engine to give a so called "coalscuttle" bonnet. This continued through the 1920s and it was not until 1930 that all models had the radiator at the front. The bonnet badge changed from circular to the familiar and continuing diamond shape in 1925. Renault models were introduced at the Paris Motor Show which was held in September or October of the year. This has led to a slight confusion as to vehicle identification. For example a "1927" model was mostly produced in 1928. Renault produced a range of cars from small to very large. For example in 1928 which was the year when Renault produced 45,809 cars the range of 7 models started with a 6cv, a 10cv, the Monasix, 15cv, the Vivasix, the 18/24cv and the 40cv. There was a range of factory bodies, of up to 8 styles, and the larger chassis were available to coachbuilders. The number of a model produced varied with size. The smaller were the most popular with the least produced being the 18/24cv. The most expensive factory body style in each range was the closed cars. Roadsters and tourers (torpedoes) were the cheapest. The London operation was very important to Renault in 1928. The UK market was quite large and from there "colonial" modified vehicles were dispatched. Lifted suspensions, enhanced cooling and special bodies were common on vehicles sold to the colonies. Exports to the USA by 1928 had almost reduced to zero from their high point prior to WW1 when to ship back a Grand Renault or similar high class European manufactured car was common. A NM 40cv Tourer had a USA list price of over $4,600 being about the same as a V12 Cadillac Tourer. Closed 7 seat limousines started at $6,000 which was more expensive than a Cadillac V16 Limousine. The whole range was conservatively engineered and built. The newly introduced 1927 Vivasix, model PG1, was sold as the "executive sports" model. Lighter weight factory steel bodies powered by a 3180 cc six cylinder motor provided a formula that went through to the Second World War. The "de Grand Luxe Renaults", that is any with over 12-foot (3.7 m) wheelbase (3.68m), were produced in very small numbers in two major types - six and eight cylinder. The 1927 six cylinder Grand Renault models NM, PI and PZ introduced the new three spring rear suspension that considerably aided road holding that was needed as with some body styles over 90 mph (140 km/h) was possible. The 8 cylinder Reinastella was introduced in 1929. This model lead on to a range culminating in the 1939 Suprastella. All Grand Renaults from 1923 are classed as classics by CCCA. Coachbuilders included Kellner, Labourdette, J.Rothschild et Fils and Renault bodies. Closed car Renault bodies were often trimmed and interior wood work completed by Rothschild. Renault also introduced in 1928 an upgraded specification to the larger cars designated "Stella". Vivastella's and Grand Renaults had upgraded interior fittings and had a small star fitted above the front hood Renault diamond. This proved to be a winning marketing differentiator and in the 1930s all cars changed to the Stella suffix from the previous two alpha character model identifiers. The Grand Renaults were built using a considerable amount of aluminium. Engines, brakes, transmissions, floor and running boards and all external body panels were aluminium. Unfortunately of the few that were built many went to scrap to aid the War effort.

Competitors in light electric vehicles

* Aixam (neighborhood electric vehicle) * Bolloré Blue Car * Buddy * Citroen Berlingo Electrique * Dynasty IT * G-Wiz (REVA) * Italcar * Mitsubishi i MiEV * Mini E * Nissan Nuvu * MyCar (evstores) * Piaggio Porter * Pininfarina B0 * Renault Z.E. * Smart EV (production car) * Subaru R1e (2009) * Tazzari Zero (2009) * The Kurrent (neighborhood electric vehicle). * Th!nk City (production car). * ZENN

Corporate governance

As of April 2008, members of the board of directors of Renault include: * Louis Schweitzer, * Carlos Ghosn, * Yves Audvard, * Patrick Biau, * Catherine Bréchignac, * Alain Champigneux.

Description

Renault S.A. (Euronext: RNO) is a French automaker producing cars, vans, buses, tractors, and trucks. Due to its alliance with Nissan, it is currently the world's 4th largest automaker.[2] It owns the Romanian automaker Automobile Dacia and the Korean automaker Renault Samsung Motors. The French-Lebanese Carlos Ghosn is the current CEO. The company's most successful car to date is the Renault Clio, and its core market is France.[2] The company is known for numerous revolutionary designs, security technologies,[clarification needed] and motor racing.

Electric vehicles

Renault is pushing ahead with its electric vehicle project and sticking to a target to sell 20,000-40,000 electric cars in 2011.[9] Israeli and Jordanian officials and executives are reported to be in discussions with executives from Renault-Nissan about setting up Israeli-Jordanian factory, in an agreement with Project Better Place, to make environmentally-friendly electric cars. Renault is working on development of exchangeable batteries.[10] The electric cars, to be made in Europe, will run on a battery developed by Nissan and Japan's NEC and will be available in 2011. A prototype is already on the road in Israel and various models will be sold by Renault and Nissan. The car would cost the same or less than comparable gasoline engine autos and would have a lifetime warranty. Renault want mass market 10,000 to 20,000 cars a year in Israel. [11] Carlos Ghosn says the electric version of the Mégane saloon that Renault is building for Israel will come with a lifetime warranty, and payment will follow the model established by the mobile-phone industry. After buying the car, owners will subscribe to a battery-replacement and charging plan based on their anticipated mileage. Recharging will be done at one of 500,000 spots that Project Better Place will build and maintain. [12] Renault is also currently collaborating with Project Better Place to produce a network of all-electric vehicles and thousands of charging stations in Denmark. The company hopes to achieve this with the use of lithium-ion technology. The plan is said to be operational by 2011.[13] The Renault-Nissan alliance and the largest French electric utility, Electricite de France (EDF) have signed an agreement to promote emission-free mobility in France. The move aims at offering all-electric volume vehicles from 2011 — including a countrywide network of battery charging stations. The French-Japanese car manufacturer has already signed similar agreements in a number of geographies outside of France including Israel, Portugal, Denmark, the U.S. state of Tennessee.[14] and the City of Yokohama in Japan. The Renault-Nissan Alliance has added two more partners for the development and promotion of a charging infrastructure to support electric vehicles: the US state of Oregon, and the Principality of Monaco.[15] Renault has announced the development of four electric models. The battery-powered line will feature a compact 5-seater city car (said to be larger than a Twingo; due at the end of 2011 or start of 2012), an electric Kangoo and a Megane-based saloon [16] and a C segment sedan known as the Fluence.[9] Two of the four vehicles will be produced in France, Koskas confirmed. The vehicles will use batteries developed by alliance partner Nissan Motor Co Ltd in collaboration with NEC Tokin Corp, Serge Yoccoz is the electric vehicle project director.[17]

Environmental record

Renault introduced a new line of eco-friendly vehicles in 2007 marked eco². A minimum of 5% recycled plastic is used in all models and at the end of the vehicles life the remains are 95% reusable. Also, eco² line’s CO2 emissions do not exceed 140g/km or are biofuel compatible.[25] At the 2008 Fleet World Honours, Renault was rewarded with the prestigious Environment Award. The judges in the event were experts in the industry including members of the leasing industry, fleet managers, representitives from residual value guides, and Fleet World’s editorial team. The chairman of Judges, George Emmerson, commented, “This was the most hotly contested category in the history of the Fleet World Honours, such is the clamour for organizations’ green credentials to be recognized. There were some very impressive entries, but the panel felt that Renault’s impressive range of low-emission vehicles was the most tangible, and the most quantifiable.[26]

Foundation and early years (1898–1918)

Producing cars since late 1897, the Renault corporation was founded in 1899 as Société Renault Frères by Louis Renault, his brothers Marcel and Fernand, and his friends Thomas Evert and Julian Wyer. Louis was a bright, aspiring young engineer who had already designed and built several models before teaming up with his brothers, who had honed their business skills working for their father's textiles firm. While Louis handled design and production, Marcel and Fernand handled company management. The first Renault car, the Renault Voiturette 1CV was sold to a friend of Louis' father after giving him a test ride on 24 December 1898. The client was so impressed with the way the tiny car ran and how it climbed the streets that he bought it. The brothers immediately recognised the publicity that could be obtained for their vehicles by participation in motor racing and Renault made itself known through achieving instant success in the first city-to-city races held in Switzerland, resulting in rapid expansion for the company. Both Louis and Marcel Renault raced company vehicles, but Marcel was killed in an accident during the 1903 Paris-Madrid race. Although Louis Renault never raced again, his company remained very involved, including Ferenc Szisz winning the first ever Grand Prix motor racing[3] event in a Renault AK 90CV in 1906. Louis was to take full control of the company as the only remaining brother in 1906 when Fernand retired for health reasons. The Renault reputation for innovation was fostered from very early on. In 1899, Renault launched the first production sedan car. At the time, cars were very much luxury items, and the price of the smallest Renaults available being 3000 francs reflected this; an amount it would take ten years for the average worker at the time to earn. As well as cars, Renault manufactured taxis, buses and commercial cargo vehicles in the pre-war years, and during World War I (1914–18) branched out into ammunition, military airplanes and vehicles such as the revolutionary Renault FT-17 tank. Company's military designs were so successful that Renault himself was honoured by the Allies for his company's contributions to their victory.[citation needed] By the end of the war, Renault was the number one private manufacturer in France.[citation needed] The company also exported their engines overseas to American auto manufacturers for use in such automobiles as the GJG which used a Renault 26 hp or 40 hp four-cylinder engine. Mr William E. Carter had a 1910 Renault Automobile shipped with him aboard RMS Titanic.

Investment in VAZ

On 29 February 2008, Renault acquired a blocking stake in the largest Russian automaker VAZ. For a long time needing to modernize its technology, VAZ was seeking a strategic partnership since the late nineties. Its owners tried to form an alliance with various foreign auto manufacturers, such as General Motors. Most of these attempts weren't all that successful, however, and generally fell through. Renault was in talks with VAZ on and off since 2005, initially insisting on CKD assembly of Logan cars on its facilities, while VAZ intended to keep its own Lada brand and only wished to acquire a new platform and engine. After several rounds of talks, between which VAZ also sought alliance with Fiat and Magna, Renault agreed to the partnership under terms not unlike the earlier Nissan deal. Renault and VAZ major stockholder, state corporation Rosoboronexport, are to form a holding, jointly owning 50% share in VAZ, with the French side receiving several key positions in the new management structure, such as Chief Operational Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Chief Engineer. In return, Renault is to supply a new platform for the Lada brand and assist in plant modernization.

L'Atelier Renault Paris

Renault's flagship showroom is located on the Champs Elysees in Paris, where other car manufacturers such as Peugeot, Citroen and Toyota also have showrooms. It was opened in November 2000, located on the site of Pub Renault, which ran from 1963 to 1999. L'Atelier currently features a Renault Boutique as well as regular exhibitions featuring Renault and Dacia cars, whilst an upmarket restaurant is located on the second floor, looking out onto the Champs Elysees. The ground floor can hold up to five different exhibitions at any one time. As of March 2009, 20 million visitors have visited L'Atelier Renault.

List of vehicles

Current model line up: * Mégane II1 (SW, CC, Saloon, Hatch 3 and 5-doors, launched 2002) * Scénic II (Launched 2003) * Grand Scénic (Launched 2003) * Laguna III (Hatchback & Estate, launched 2007) * Espace IV (& Grand Espace, launched 2002) * Vel Satis (Launched 2002, no longer available in UK) * 'Nouvelle' Twingo (Launched 2007) * Modus (Launched 2004) * Clio II (Supermini with hatchback and sedan body styles, launched 1998) * Clio III (Lutécia III in Japan, launched 2005) * Sandero (Launched 2008) * Kangoo (Launched 1998) * Trafic (Launched 2003) * Logan (Launched 2004, Also available in India from 2007 with Mahindra-Renault tie-up) is the first "low-cost" car of Renault. Developed with Dacia, it has become a world car. Renault Laguna was the first medium-size car to obtain five-star rating, as well as the Modus and Megane in its own category.

Miscellanea

* The Renault factory in Billancourt is the visual inspiration for the factory seen on Code Lyoko and featured some of its vehicles in the series. * Renault also built rail vehicles. Mainly autorail type vehicles. * Renault sponsored and was heavily featured in Le Visionarium a time-travel film at Disneyland Paris.

Models

* Renault Clio * Renault Clio Renault Sport * Renault Clio V6 Renault Sport * Renaultsport Clio 197 * Renault Electric Mégane * Renault Mégane * Renault Mégane Renault Sport * Renault Ondelios, a crossover hybrid diesel-electric vehicle .

Modern era (1972–80)

The company's compact and economical Renault 5 model, launched in 1972, was another success, particularly in the wake of the 1973 energy crisis. The R5 remained in production until 1984 when it was replaced by the Super5. The formula was much the same however, and the Super5 inherited its styling lines from its father (however with a transversal engine, as opposed to the longitudinal engine inherited by the first generation Renault 5 from the Renault 4). Soon after, the four-door Renault 12 model slotted into the Renault range between the R6 and the R16, and introduced a new styling theme. Throughout the '70s the R4, R5, R6, R12 and R16 maintained Renault's production. In the '80s the latter two were replaced by the R9 (and its R11 sedan variation) and the R15/R17 sport coupes. Both the R15/R17 were essentially identical two-door coupes, but while the R15 had a large glassy greenhouse, the R17 had thick pillars behind the doors, with slatted windows, to make it look the sportier of the two. Endangered like all of the motor industry by the energy crisis, during the mid seventies the already expansive company diversified further into other industries and continued to expand globally, including into South East Asia. The energy crisis also provoked Renault's attempt to reconquer the North American market; despite the Dauphine's success in the United States in the late 1950s, and an unsuccessful car-assembly project in Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville, Quebec, (1964–72), Renault as a stand-alone brand, began to disappear from North America at the end of the '70s. Throughout the decades Renault developed a collaborative partnership with Nash Motors Rambler and its successor American Motors Corporation (AMC). From 1962 to 1967, Renault assembled complete knock down (CKD) kits of the Rambler Classic sedans in its factory in Belgium. Renault did not have large or luxury cars in its product line and the "Rambler Renault" was aimed as an alternative to the Mercedes-Benz "Fintail" cars. Similar to the fate of some of these Mercedes cars at the time, many of these "American" Renaults finished their life working as taxis. Later, Renault would continue to make and sell a hybrid of AMC's Rambler American and Rambler Classic called the Renault Torino in Argentina (sold through IKA-Renault). Renault partnered with AMC on other projects, such as development of a rotary concept engine in the late 60s, and would eventually own AMC in 1980. This was one of a series of collaborative ventures undertaken by Renault in the late 1960s and 1970s, as the company established subsidiaries in Eastern Europe, most notably Dacia in Romania, and South America (many of which remain active to the present day) and forged technological cooperation agreements with Volvo and Peugeot (for instance, for the development of the PRV V6 engine, which was used in Renault 30, Peugeot 604, and Volvo 260 in the late 1970s.). In the mid 1960s an Australian arm, Renault Australia, was set up in Heidelberg, Melbourne, the company would produce and assemble models from the R8, R10, R12, R16, sporty R15, R17 coupe's to the R18 and R20, soon the company would close in 1981. Interestingly Renault Australia did not just concentrate on Renaults, they also built and marketed Peugeots as well. From 1977, they assembled Ford Cortina station wagons under contract- the loss of this contract led to the closure of the factory. In North America, Renault formed a partnership with AMC, lending AMC operating capital and buying a small percentage of the company in late 1979. Jeep was keeping AMC afloat until new products, particularly the XJ Cherokee, could be launched. When the bottom fell out of the 4x4 truck market in early 1980 AMC was in danger of going bankrupt. To protect its investment Renault bailed AMC out with a big cash influx — at the price of a controlling interest in the company — 47.5%. Renault quickly replaced some top positions in AMC with their own people. The Renault–AMC partnership also resulted in the marketing of Jeep vehicles in Europe. Some consider the Jeep XJ Cherokee as a joint AMC/Renault project since some early sketches of the XJ series was done as a collaboration of both Renault and AMC engineers (AMC insisted that the XJ Cherokee was designed by AMC personnel; however, a former Renault engineer designed the Quadra-Link front suspension for the XJ series). The Jeep also used wheels and unique rocking seats from Renault. Part of AMC's overall strategy when the partnership was first discussed was to save manufacturing cost by using Renault sourced parts when practical, and some engineering expertise. This led to the improvement of the venerable AMC in-line six — a Renault/Bendix based port electronic fuel injection system (usually called Renix) that transformed it into a modern, competitive powerplant with a jump from 110 hp (82 kW) to 177 hp (132 kW) with less displacement (4.0L vs. 4.2L). The Renault-AMC marketing effort in passenger cars was not as successful compared to the popularity for Jeep vehicles. This was because by the time the Renault range was ready to become established in the American market, the second energy crisis was over, taking with it much of the trend for economical, compact cars. One exception was the Renault Alliance (an Americanized version of theRenault 9), which debuted for the 1983 model year. Assembled at AMC's plant in Kenosha, Wisconsin, the Alliance was an instant hit with more economically minded buyers. Motor Trend gave its domestic Car of The Year award for 1983 to the Alliance, a surprising pick to many. The Alliance's 72% U.S. content allowed it to qualify as a domestic vehicle, making it the first car with a foreign nameplate to win the award. (In 2000, Motor Trend did away with separate awards for domestic and imported vehicles.) Renault sold some interesting models in the U.S. in the 1980s, especially the simple-looking but fun Renault Alliance GTA and GTA convertible — a real automatic-top convertible with a simple but clean euro-style design featuring a gently sloping hood, as well as a 2.0 L engine — big for a car of its class; and the ahead-of-its-time Renault Fuego coupe, which generated some excitement. The Alliance was followed by the Encore (U.S. version of the Renault 11), an Alliance-based hatchback. This burst of success in the United States proved to be short-lived, though. Renault's Wisconsin-built and imported models quickly became the target of customer complaints for poor quality, and sales plummeted. Eventually, Renault sold AMC to Chrysler in 1987 after the assassination of Renault’s chairman, Georges Besse. The Renault Medallion (Renault 21 in Europe) sedan and wagon was sold from 1987 to 1989 through Jeep-Eagle dealerships. Jeep-Eagle was the new division Chrysler created out of the former American Motors. However, Renault products were no longer imported into the United States after 1989. Rumors have since persisted about Renault's return to the U.S. market; all of them to date have been unfounded. A completely new full-sized 4-door sedan, the Eagle Premier, was developed during the partnership between AMC and Renault. The Premier design, as well as its state-of-the-art manufacturing facility in Bramalea, Ontario, Canada, were the starting point for the sleek LH sedans such as the Eagle Vision and Chrysler 300M. In the late seventies and early eighties Renault increased its involvement in motorsport, with novel inventions such as turbochargers in their Formula One cars. The company's road car designs were revolutionary also — the Renault Espace was one of the first minivans and was to remain the most well-known minivan in Europe for at least the next two decades. The second-generation Renault 5, the European Car of the Year-winning Renault 9, and the most luxurious Renault yet, the 25 were all released in the early 1980s, building Renault's reputation, but at the same time the company suffered from poor product quality which reflected badly in the image of the brand and the ill-fated Renault 14 is seen by many as the culmination of these problems in the early 1980s.

Motorsport

Motorsport has long been recognised as an effective marketing tool for automobile manufacturers. In the late seventies and early eighties, Renault began to involve itself more heavily in motorsport, setting up a dedicated motorsport division called Renault Sport, and winning the Le Mans 24 Hours (with the Renault Alpine A442, built in collaboration with newly-acquired Alpine) while achieving success in both rallying (with the Renault 5 Turbo) and Formula One. Initially, Renault's entry into Formula One in 1977 was ridiculed when the team's first design included such curiosities as a turbocharger. However, the team was to win their first race on home soil in Dijon a mere two years later and by the early eighties, every front-running Formula One team used turbochargers. Renault also took over the Benetton F1 team in 2001, and quickly became very competitive, Fernando Alonso winning Renault's first race in its second incarnation at the 2003 Hungarian Grand Prix. 2004 saw the Renault team finish a close third in the Constructors' Championship and in 2005 the team won both Constructors' and Drivers' titles (with Fernando Alonso). In 2006 Renault repeated its success of the previous year, again claiming both the Constructors' and Drivers' titles (again with Fernando Alonso before his departure to McLaren in 2007). Questions have been raised regarding Renault's commitment to its Formula One team, particularly with the appointment of Carlos Ghosn as CEO. However at the 2005 French Grand Prix Ghosn set out his policy regarding the company's involvement in motorsport: In short he will continue Renault's investment in F1 as long as the team is successful and can use the resulting publicity for wider commercial gain. Conversely if the team is unsuccessful in future it can be expected that Ghosn will withdraw resources from the sport. In 2006 Carlos Ghosn finally announced that the team would stay in F1 in the long term (at least until 2012) putting an end to the rumors.

Overseas accolades

Wheels magazine has announced its Car of the Year every year since 1963, with the exception of 1972, 1979 and 1986 when no cars were considered worthy of the honour. It is considered Australia's most prestigious automotive award. Wheels Magazine itself contends that its Car of the Year award remains the oldest continuous award of its kind in the world. The inaugural Australian Wheels Car of the Year award was won by the R8 in 1963 (particularly in consideration to its four wheel disc brake system), and Renault won again in 1970 when the Renault 12 won the prestigious award.

PHEV Research Center

The Renault-Nissan group is in the PHEV Research Center. Nissan is also hedging its bets by developing both a "parallel hybrid" system (akin to that found in the Toyota Prius) and a plug-in "series hybrid" similar to the Chevy Volt. But it favours the all-electric approach, even though it will be a tough sell, says Mr Lane. As for Mr Ghosn, he has no doubts. "We must have zero-emission vehicles," he says. "Nothing else will prevent the world from exploding." [12]

Possible industry realignment (2008)

On 7 October 2008, the Wall Street Journal reported that a Renault executive said the company was interested in acquiring or partnering with Chrysler, which is owned by the private equity firm Cerberus Capital Management.[5] On 11 October 2008, the New York Times reported that General Motors, Nissan and Renault had all been in discussions over the past month with Cerberus about acquiring Chrysler.[6]

Privatization (1996–99)

It was eventually decided that the company's state-owned status was detrimental to its growth, and Renault was privatized in 1996. This new freedom allowed the company to venture once again into Eastern Europe and South America, including a new factory in Brazil and upgrades for the infrastructure in Argentina and Turkey. It also meant the end of the aforementioned successful Formula 1 campaign. In 1999 Renault merged with Nissan Motor Campany. In the twenty-first century, Renault was to foster a reputation for distinctive, outlandish design. The second generation of the Laguna and Mégane featured ambitious, angular designs which turned out to be highly successful. Less successful were the company's more upmarket models. The Avantime, a bizarre coupé / multi-purpose mix vehicle, sold very poorly and was quickly discontinued while the luxury Vel Satis model did not sell as well as hoped. However, the design inspired the lines of the second generation Mégane, the most successful car of the maker. As well as its distinctive styling, Renault was to become known for its car safety; currently, it's the car manufacturer with the largest number of models achieving the maximum 5 star rating in EuroNCAP crash tests. The Laguna was the first Renault to achieve a 5 star rating; in 2004 the Modus was the first to achieve this rating in its category. The government of France owns 15.7 per cent of the company. Louis Schweitzer has been the Chairman of Renault since 1992 and was CEO from 1992 to 2005. In 2005, Carlos Ghosn (also CEO of Nissan) became Renault's CEO, with Louis Schweitzer staying on as Chairman. Renault owns Samsung Motors (Renault Samsung Motors) and Dacia, as well as retaining a minority (but controlling) stake (20%) in the Volvo Group. (Volvo passenger cars are now a subsidiary of the Ford Motor Company). Renault bought 99% of the Romanian company Dacia, thus returning after 30 years, in which time the Romanians built over 2 million cars, which primarily consisted of the Renault 8, 12 and 20. Renault also owns 44.5% of Nissan, while Nissan owns 15% of Renault. This is the basis for the Renault-Nissan Alliance, which is now in its 10th year.

Pronunciation

When its cars were exported to the United States during the 1950s and 1960s, the name was commonly mispronounced as "Ren-alt" to and by the American public, and the Americanized pronunciation continues in common usage, though the original French has gained significant ground over recent years. This was partially countered in the 1980s, when Renault launched a significant television advertising campaign in the United States. The ads featured the tag, "The one to watch," followed by a deep-voiced announcer carefully intoning the brand name. Presently in the United Kingdom it is also incorrectly pronounced as "Reh-no". The correct pronunciation is "Ruh-no".

References

* Paul Krill (2008-01-30). "Renault in Linux deal with Microsoft, Novell". InfoWorld. http://weblog.infoworld.com/techwatch/archives/015715.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-01. 

Renault Ondelios

Renault Ondelios Concept is described by Renault as an "environmentally friendly high-end crossover". [18]. The Ondelios gets a hybrid electric powerplant combining a more powerful 205 HP version of Renault's 2.0-liter dCi engine with two 20kW electric motors at the front and rear.[19][20]

Renault Z.E.

Renault has displayed an all-electric car concept in Paris that gives a preview of what to expect when Project Better Place kicks off. The Renault Z.E. Concept is based on the Renault Kangoo Be Bop, also debuting at the Paris Show.[21] It has its compact dimensions (length: 3.95 m (156 in), height: 1.85 m (73 in)[22] . The Z.E. is powered by a 70 kW electric motor and lithium-ion batteries. Solar panels positioned on the roof power a temperature regulation system.[23][24]

Renault in the UK

The first popular Renault motor vehicles to achieve sustained sales success in the United Kingdom were the R5 mini-car and R18, both of which attained six-digit sales figures during the late 1970s and early 1980s, although they failed to achieve anything like the volumes of established carmakers Ford, Vauxhall and Austin Rover. Renault enjoyed a huge rise in popularity among British buyers on the arrival of the Clio supermini in early 1991. It was regularly among Britain's most popular cars each year during the 1990s and its successor (launched in 1998 alongside the final installment of the successful 'Nicole and Papa' advertising campaign), where the original model left off. The sedan/saloon version, called Thalia, was not launched in the UK. Renault went from strength to strength in the UK during the 2000s following the introduction of its distinctively-styled Mégane hatchback in November 2002. Any suggestions that its quirky styling would not fit in with the tastes of British buyers were quickly confounded in 2005 when it was the fourth best selling car in Britain. Renault also helps produce cars known now as Nissan. In 2006, it was the third most popular brand of car in the United Kingdom. Only Ford and Vauxhall sold more units. In 2007 Renault UK lost a US$2 million law suit against an independent distributor who had placed orders for 217 cars under a discount scheme intended for members of the British Airline Pilots Association- 3 were legitimate- because they had "made a profit of some sort on every vehicle". Two Renault employees were criticized for having "turned a blind eye" to the very large number of orders.[8] By 2008, Renault sales had started declining in the UK and the marque was down to eighth most popular brand with 89,570 sales (down 29% compared to 2007) and considerably less than the 194,685 sales made in 2002. Renault seems to be suffering more than most in the 2009 UK market and its February 2009 registrations were down to 1,504 (2.77% market share) and down 43.99% compared to February 2008.

Restructuring (1981–95)

Although its cars were somewhat successful both on the road and on the track, Renault was losing a billion francs a month and reported a deficit of 12.5 billion in 1984. The government intervened and Georges Besse was installed as chairman; he set about cutting costs dramatically, selling off many of Renault's non-core assets, withdrawing almost entirely from motorsports, and laying off many employees. This succeeded in halving the deficit by 1986, but he was murdered by the left wing terrorist group Action Directe in November 1986. He was replaced by Raymond Lévy, who continued along the same lines as Besse, slimming down the company considerably with the result that by the end of 1987 the company was more or less financially stable. A revitalised Renault launched several successful new cars in the early 1990s, including the phenomenally successful 5 replacement, the Clio, the second-generation Espace, the innovative Twingo, the Laguna, and the 19. In the mid-1990s the successor to the R19, the Renault Mégane, was the first car ever to achieve a 4-star rating, the highest at the time, in EuroNCAP crash test in passenger safety. In 1998 Renault introduced Mégane Scénic, a completely new class of cars, a compact monospace with a footprint of a regular Mégane. The return to success on the road was matched by a return to success on the racetrack — Renault-powered cars won the Formula One World Championship in 1992, 1993, 1996 and 1997 with Williams, and in 1995 with Benetton. Throughout this period, Renault's European advertising famously made extensive use of Robert Palmer's song "Johnny And Mary." The earlier television advertisements used Palmer's original version, while a range of special recordings in different styles were produced during the 1990s; most famously Martin Taylor's acoustic interpretation which he released on his album Spirit of Django. Taylor recorded many alternate versions for Renault; the last being in 1998 for the launch of the all-new Renault Clio.

See also

* List of Renault vehicles * Alpine (car) * Renault Trucks * Automobile Dacia * NEC * Renault Samsung Motors * Renault F1 * Renault Sport * Renault Spider

The Renault Nissan Alliance (1999– )

Signed on 27 March 1999, the Renault–Nissan Alliance is the first of its kind involving a Japanese and a French company, each with its own distinct corporate culture and brand identity, linked through cross-shareholding. Renault has a stake of 44.4 percent in the Japanese automaker Nissan, while Nissan in turn has a 15 percent stake (non-voting) in Renault. For 2004 Renault reported a 43% rise in net income to €3.5 billion and 5.9% operating margin, of which Nissan contributed €1,767 million. The Group (Renault, Dacia, Renault Samsung Motors) posted a 4.2% increase in worldwide sales to a record 2,489,401 vehicles, representing a global market share of 4.1%. Renault retained its position as the leading brand in Europe with 1.8 million passenger cars and light commercial vehicles sold and market share of 10.8%. In 2005. the Renault–Nissan Alliance held 9.8% of the worldwide market (5.74% for Nissan and 4.04% for the Renault group) with sales of 3,597,748 (Nissan) and 2,531,500 (Renault Group), placing the alliance fourth after GM, Toyota, and Ford. For the calendar year of 2008, its total global sales were 6,090,304, a decrease of 1.1% against a global industry market decline of 5%, resulting in a 9.4% share, up from 9.1% in 2007.[4] The marketing success was also matched by success of their return to the Formula 1 circuit as a manufacturer again after buying the Benetton team. The team went on to win both World Drivers and Constructors championships in 2005 and 2006 ahead of the vastly more experienced Ferrari and McLaren teams. Renault is exhibiting a Hi-Flex Clio 1.6 16v at the 2006 Paris International Agricultural Show. This vehicle, which addresses the Brazilian market, features Renault-developed flexible-fuel engine technology, with a highly versatile engine that can run on fuel containing petrol and ethanol in any proportion (0% to 100% of either). On 30 June 2006, the media reported that General Motors convened an emergency board meeting to discuss a proposal by shareholder Kirk Kerkorian to form an alliance between GM and Renault-Nissan. The hastily arranged meeting suggests that GM's board was treating Kerkorian's proposal with urgency. There has been speculation that a GM–Renault–Nissan alliance could pave the way for Renault's return to the U.S. market, since GM could eliminate some of its less profitable brands, and offer Renault franchises to dealerships that would otherwise close. However, GM CEO Richard Wagoner felt that an alliance would benefit Renault's shareholders more than those of GM, and that GM should receive some compensation for it. This did not sit well with Renault; subsequently, talks between GM and Renault ended on 4 October 2006.

Timeline

* 1898 - Louis Renault founded Renault * 1903 - Marcel Renault dies in a car accident * 1912 - A Renault car was loaded onto the RMS Titanic at Southampton dock. * 1943 - The Renault factory in Billancourt is attacked by the Allies. * 1944 - Louis Renault dies in prison after being arrested on charges of collaborating with the Nazis during WWII. * 1944 - Renault nationalized by the French Government in response to the Nazi collaboration charges against its founder. * 1961 - The Renault 4 goes on sale to give Renault a practical competitor for the likes of the Citroën 2CV and Volkswagen Beetle. * 1965 - Renault launches the world's first production hatchback - the Renault 16.[citation needed] * 1971 - Renault launches the Renault 15 and Renault 17 two-door coupes, giving it a serious competitor for the Ford Capri. * 1972 - Renault enters the new "supermini" market with its R5 hatchback, one of the first such cars in this sector. On its launch, the R5 only has three similar competitors - the Fiat 127, Autobianchi A112 and Peugeot 104. * 1976 - The Renault 5 Alpine is launched, giving the marque its first entrant into the Hot hatch market. Possibly one of the very first hot hatches, going into production in the same year as the Volkswagen Golf GTI. * 1977 - Renault enters the small family hatchback market with the 14, which is one of Europe's first hatchbacks of this size. * 1979 - Renault buys a stake in American Motors, with a view to establishing itself on the American market. * 1980 - Renault launches the 5 Turbo, which is designed as a rally car but does include roadgoing versions. It ditches the front-drive, front-engined layout for a mid-mounted engine (in place of the rear seats) and rear-wheel drive. * 1981 - Renault launches the 9 a four-door saloon, a modern three-box design which is designed to keep the market interest in saloons at a time when hatchbacks are becoming the norm in this sector. It is voted European Car of the Year. * 1982 - Renault becomes the second European automaker to build cars in the United States, after Volkswagen. The Alliance, the North American version of the 9, is manufactured in Wisconsin by American Motors and debuts as a 1983 model. It is voted Car of the Year by Motor Trend. * 1983 - Renault launches the 11 - a hatchback version of the R9. It gives Renault its first serious rival to the Volkswagen Golf. It goes on sale in the fall in the United States as the Encore. * 1984 - Renault enters the executive car market with the large 25 hatchback, aimed directly at the likes of the Ford Granada, Rover SD1 and Opel Rekord. * 1985 - Renault launches the Espace - Europe's first multi-purpose vehicle. It gains praise from all over Europe thanks to its unique practicality and innovation. * 1986 - On 9 April the Government of France rules against the privatization of Renault. * 1986 - Renault replaces the 18 with the all-new R21 saloon and Savanna seven-seater estate. * 1987 - Renault sells its stake in American Motors to Chrysler. * 1988 - The 9 and 11 ranges are replaced by a single model, the 19, which is praised for its excellent ride and handling, as well as the frugality and refinement of its diesel engines. * 1990 - Renault launches the Clio supermini, designed as an eventual replacement for the Renault 5. The Clio is the first new model of a generation which will see the numeric models replaced by new cars with traditional nameplates. It sets supermini benchmarks for build quality, comfort and space, and is voted European Car of the Year. * 1991 - The Renault 19 becomes available as a cabriolet, and a mild facelift sees the standard range's exterior styling refreshed. * 1992 - Louis Schweitzer becomes president of Renault group. * 1992 - Renault moves into the city car market with its Twingo, a small hatchback with a "cube" design that maximises interior space, though it is only built with left-hand drive. It re-enters the executive market with the Safrane, an ultramodern large hatchback which replaces the R25. * 1995 - Renault 5 production finishes after nearly a quarter of a century. It had been produced in Slovenia since the launch of the Clio in 1990. * 1995 - Renault replaces the Renault 19 with the Megane, a range of hatchbacks, saloons, estates, coupes and cabriolets. * 1996 - Renault enters the new "compact MPV" market with its Megane-based Scenic. It is voted European Car of the Year, fighting off competition from the Ford Ka and Volkswagen Passat * 1996 - The company was privatised to create Renault S.A. * 1997 - The all-new Espace goes on sale with a more upmarket image than its predecessor, that served the company for over 10 years. * 1998 - The second generation Clio is launched, using an all-new body and being one of the most competitively-priced European superminis, though its styling is not to all tastes. * 1999 - Renault purchased a 36.8 percent equity stake in Nissan, the almost bankrupt Japanese car maker, by injecting US$3.5 billion to obtain effective control of the company under Japanese law. Renault vice-president, Carlos Ghosn was parachuted in to turn round the ailing firm. Nissan also owns 15% of Renault in turn. * 1999 - Renault purchased a 99 percent stake in Romanian car maker Dacia for US$50 mln ; so, Renault is back in PiteÅŸti after 30 years. Renault has invested more than US$1.7 billion between 2000 and 2007. * 2000 - Renault launches the Laguna II - the first European family car to feature "keyless" entry and ignition. * 2001 - Renault sold its industrial vehicle subdivision (Renault Véhicules Industriels) to Volvo, which renamed it Renault Trucks in 2002. The Clio undergoes a major facelift and the launch of a 1.5 direct-injection diesel engine to keep it competitive in the supermini sector. * 2002 - Benetton Formula One team formally becomes Renault F1, Renault increases its stake in Nissan to 44.4 percent. * 2002 - Renault gains another European Car of the Year success with its second generation Megane, a quirky-looked car which is set to form the basis of Nissan's Almera replacement later in the decade. * 2003 - Renault expands in Megane hatchback range with coupe-cabriolet, estate (SportsTourer) and sedan (SportsSaloon) variants. * 2004 - The Renault factory in Billancourt is demolished. * 2005 - Carlos Ghosn becomes president. * 2005 - The Clio III is elected European Car of the Year 2006 and gains plaudits from all over Europe for its class-leading qualities. The previous generation Clio is set to continue for a while until the Twingo II goes on sale. Renault F1 win the constructors world championship as well as the drivers championship. * 2006 - In February, Carlos Ghosn announced the "Renault Commitment 2009" plan focusing on three main goals : * sell 800 000 more cars than in 2006 * Reach an operating margin of 6% * Place the new Laguna in terms of quality and service rate. The same year, Renault and Nissan engaged talkes with General Motors to study a potential alliance. This approach was finally abandoned due to the fact that GM asked for money as "entry ticket" from Renault. Renault F1 win the constructors world championship as well as the drivers championship for the second year in succession. * 2007 - The third generation Laguna is introduced, with the objective to strengthen Renault's position in the large family car sector. * 2008 - Job-cut plan (4800) partly due to Laguna whose sales have fallen short of expectations [7]

Typeface

Both the Renault logo and its documentation (technical as well as commercial) historically used a specially designed typeface called Renault, developed by British firm Wolff Olins. This type family is said to have been designed not for prestige reasons, but mainly to save costs at a time where the use of typefaces was more costly than it is now. In 2004, French typeface designer Jean-François Porchez was commissioned to design a replacement. This was shown in October of that year and is called Renault Identité.

World War II and after (1939–71)

After France surrendered in 1940, Louis Renault refused to produce tanks for Nazi Germany, which took control of his factories. The socialist Provisional Government of the French Republic accused him of collabrating with the German occupiers and had him arrested during the liberation of France in 1944. He died in prison before having prepared his defence. An autopsy later showed that his neck had been broken, suggesting that he was murdered. His industrial assets were seized by the provisional government of France. The Renault factories became a public industry (known as Régie Nationale des Usines Renault) under the leadership of Pierre Lefaucheux. In the years immediately following its nationalisation Renault experienced something of a resurgence, led by the rear engine 4CV model, which was launched in 1946 and proved itself a capable rival for cars such as the Morris Minor and Volkswagen Beetle, its success (more than half a million sold) making sure it remained in production until 1961. There was also a large mechanically conventional 2-litre 4-cylinder car, the Renault Fregate, from 1951 to 1960. As with earlier Renault models, the company made extensive use of motor racing to promote the 4CV, the car winning both the Le Mans 24 Hours and Mille Miglia races as well as the Monte Carlo rally. However, despite the success of its flagship model, the company continued to be blighted by labor unrest, and indeed continued to be well into the 1980s. The 4CV's replacement, the Dauphine, sold extremely well as the company expanded production and sales further abroad, including Africa and North America. The car did not sell well in North America and it was outdated by the start of the 1960s. In an attempt to revive its flagging fortunes, Renault launched two cars which were to become phenomenally successful — the Renault 4 and Renault 8 in 1961 and 1962 respectively. The R8 continued Renault's traditional rear-engined layout, but the R4 started the revolution to front engined/front wheel drive. R4 production continued until 1992. The larger rear-engined Renault 10 followed the success of the R8, but was the last of the rear-engined Renaults. The company achieved success with the more modern and more upmarket Renault 16 launched in 1966, which continued Renault's reputation for innovation by being the world's first hatchback larger than subcompact size. The smaller Renault 6 followed, in the style of the R16.

tryhookup.com is the premier Hookup dating website in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne, France. On our website a Hookup is defined as a successful man (regardless of his age) who is generous and a gentleman who knows how to treat his One Night Stand. It is however important to note what a Hookup is not. A Hookup is not someone who offers gifts or money in exchange for sexual favors. That would be a John. And while sugar daddies are idolized in our society (think Hugh Hefner), John’s on the other hand are stigmatized (think ex-NY Governor Elliot Spitzer). Also, a Hookup does not refer to the candy we all know about. A Hookup is also not a singles by The Jackson 5, or a single by Nina Sky, or a song by the Badloves, nor it is a song from the off-Broadway show and film, Hedwig and the Angry Inch. Other terms for a Hookup include: benefactor, mentor, sponsor, champion, or supporter. On tryhookup.com, there over 15+ sugar babies for every Hookup member. Unlike most online dating websites where members play games and beat around the bush only to be disappointed by the courtship dance. Hookup App has been named “Best Fishing Hole” in a recent article on the New York Times. The reason is because sugar daddies, sugar mommies and sugar babies understand they can be honest and up front about why they are here and what they are looking for. By being completely upfront, sugar daddies, sugar mommies and sugar babies are able to cut out the game to forge no-drama type relationships that are mutually beneficial to everyone. Sugar Daddie dating is also called benefactor dating, sponsor dating, or mentor dating. Unlike other Hookup dating websites such as SugarDaddie.com, SugarDaddy4Me.com, SugarDaddy.com, or the hundreds of other smaller Hookup copy-cats that pop up every other week, tryhookup.com is different in that we do not use the term “Hookup” in our URL domain name. We are also the dating website to feature the most real people from Renault, Champagne-Ardenne, France. Our website employs state of the art anti-fraud system to weed out fake profiles, spammers and scammers. We are also the only Hookup dating website that is actively redefining the meaning of sugar dating and the sugar lifestyle – that a Hookup isn’t an old rich man preying on younger women, rather he is a gentleman (irrespective of age) who wants to pamper someone beautiful. We are also the only website to make people understand that one doesn’t have to be a millionaire to be a Hookup or sugar mommy, and as long as you are successful, generous and have a disposable income, you too can be a Hookup or sugar mommy. tryhookup.com features the only Hookup blog where issues related to Hookup dating are being discussed everyday by real sugar daddies, sugar babies and sugar mommies. Sugar babies, sugar babe, One Night Stand or sugar babes are all ways to refer to men or girls who are looking to be pampered by a Hookup or sugar momma. Sugar babies share a number of characteristics, they are all gorgeous, beautiful, attractive, sexy, hot, cute, pretty, sensual and personable. Sugar babes include aspiring actresses, aspiring models, girl next door, new graduates, college freshmen, sophomores, juniors, seniors, dancers, adult entertainers, adult film stars, playboy playmates, penthouse playmates, or single mothers. Sugar babes are also confident, smart, intelligent, capable, and they know what they want and how to work hard to get it. For their part, sugar babies add significant value to the lives of their sugar daddies or sugar mommas, and as such are pampered in return. ;
tryhookup.com also caters to those looking for Millionaire dating. However, it’s important to note that one does not need to be a millionaire to be a Hookup. One does have to be wealthy man, rich man, successful man, generous man, upscale man, or established man. Of course, being a millionaire or a billionaire doesn’t hurt either, since money can help with the process of romance. Our website boasts hundreds of wealthy men, successful men, generous men, upscale men, established men, and men of substance who are seriously seeking a mutually beneficial arrangement in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne, France. If you are looking to meet a millionaire, or singles who are likely to become a millionaire or billionaire, you may want to try using SeekingMillionaire.com, where wealthy or beautiful singles meet each other. However, if you are only interested in a mutually beneficial relationship with a millionaire, you may want to try tryhookup.com instead of a millionaire dating, millionaire personal, millionaire romance, millionaire love, millionaire matchmaker, millionaire match, millionaire introduction, or millionaire meet services. Millionaire matchmakers, such as MillionaireClub123.com or executive matchmaker, charge upwards of $20,000 and are overpriced. For $49.95, you can meet quality singles and millionaires without the use of such upscale matchmaking services with the same, if not better results. Be careful of millionaire dating websites that claim to be Hookup dating websites, such as Establishedmen.com, MillionaireMatch.com, WealthyMen.com, or MillionaireMate.com – these millionaire dating websites are unsure what niche they represent. A millionaire dating website is not a Hookup dating website. They are very different. Millionaire dating websites are only for singles and are for those seeking serious relationships. Hookup dating websites on the other hand cater to both singles and married individuals seeking mutually beneficial / no strings attached arrangements. So what does it take to be classified a millionaire, or someone who is an established single, successful single, upscale single, executive single, wealthy single, or rich single? Obviously, wealth can be subjective just as beauty can be. However, if you are someone who has over $500k in net worth or if you make over $100k a year in annual income, it is fair to suggest that you are wealthy or have the pretty good chance of becoming a millionaire. Another qualification is if you are successful in your career and hold an executive position making over one hundred thousand dollars a year, including Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Information Officer (CIO), Chief Investment Officer (CIO), Chief Marketing Officer (CMO), President, Vice President, or General Manager. If you belong to such a group, the internet and more specifically tryhookup.com and SeekingMillionaire.com, offer you an unprecedented opportunity to meet and date gorgeous, beautiful, sexy, cute, attractive, sensual, hot or pretty singles, including but not limited to actors, actresses, models, aspiring models, aspiring actresses, girls next door, playboy playmates, penthouse playmates, dancers, adult entertainers, adult actresses, adult movie stars, artists, college freshmen, college sophomores, college juniors, college seniors or recent high school graduates. ;
NSA is short for No Strings Attached, and usually referring to no strings attached relationships or no strings attached dating (NSA dating). Typically when someone says he or she is looking for a NSA relationship or NSA arrangement, that usually means they are not ready for commitment, to be tied down, and hence the relationship would likely not end up being serious or a marriage. What no strings attached does not refer to are: No Strings Attached ('N Sync album), an album by boy band 'N Sync; No Strings Attached (Meat Puppets album), a 1990 compilation CD by the Meat Puppets; No Strings Attached (Jassi Sidhu album); No Strings Attached, a comedy tour by comedian Carlos Mencia. NSA dating or no strings attached dating is one of the main focus of tryhookup.com, and our website hosts more members seeking NSA relationships in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne, France than any other online dating websites. Other commonly used terms in Sugar dating are - GFE which is short for Girl Friend Experience, and BFE which is short of Boy Friend Experience. While mostly an abbreviation used by Escorts and Johns, the term is also often used by those searching for intimate Hookup and One Night Stand relationships. Usually those looking for GFE dating are seeking NSA dating, and likewise those looking for BFE dating are seeking NSA relationships. GFE personals, BFE personals or NSA personals is one of the main focus of tryhookup.com It appears that GFE can be an acronym or abbreviation for many different things. GFE can mean Good Faith Estimate, Government-Furnished Equipment, Grantmakers for Education, Graphical Forecast Editor, Google Front End (Google web server), Generic Front End, Gas Free Engineer, Group Format Error, Gesellschaft für Forschung und Entwicklung (German), Good for Everything, Groningen Fitness Test for the Elderly, General Fund Exempt, Go Fat Early, Grooming Fabric Edge. However, on tryhookup, GFE means Girl Friend Experience. The "girlfriend experience" generally involves more personal interaction than a traditional call girl or escort offers. Advertising a "girlfriend experience" is sometimes used by call girls to promote business. Please note that tryhookup.com does not permit prostitutes or escorts from using our website, hence our definition of GFE and BFE is different. Here GFE and BFE means NSA – or no strings attached relationships. Something similar to this is shown in the Charles Bronson film, The Mechanic and the Burt Reynolds film, Sharky's Machine. A corresponding term (used to describe a client who acts as a lover instead of merely a participant in a commercial transaction) is "BFE" or "boyfriend experience." "PSE" or Porn Star Experience is where the service provider will sometimes allow photos or video to be taken or to act like a porn star for a client and the sex acts are un-covered (no condom). ;
tryhookup.com is the largest Hookup and One Night Stand discreet dating website and discreet personals in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne, France. Discreet dating, discreet encounters, discreet affairs, discreet arrangement, discreet love, discreet relationship, discreet romance, or discreet girlfriend, are all secretive dating where participants are careful to avoid embarrassment since they are dealing with private matters requiring secrecy. The market for discreet dating is large, in fact there are services such as Alibi Network that is a full service discreet agency providing alibis and excuses for absences. In fact they advertise “Whether you are involved in discreet affairs or you are married and looking to spice up your relationship by spending time with your partner away from the everyday life, we have a solution for you.” Discreet dating may also be referred to as confidential dating, confidential relationship, confidential affairs, confidential romance, confidential mistress or confidential girlfriend. To be involved in discreet dating, one has to be extremely secret about it. Meeting in another small town; getting separate rooms in a large hotel; not letting on you know the person if you are at same event they are. In other words, short of having the odd "squeak between the sheets" you don't know each other out in public or at the workplace. Discreet dating sometimes occurs at the workplace when two people who are not supposed to get involved romantically did so. For example, in the case of an affair between a professor and his student, or a love affair between a boss and his secretary, participants need to keep their dating discreet so no one finds out. Check out the Hookup App Blog for more discussion on issues related to discreet dating in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne, France. Advice you will find include the pros and cons of discreet arrangements, how to keep discreet relationships working, how to end discreet affairs, and how to make discreet dating work when one or both are married. One of the biggest problems with most discreet dating websites is that they do not screen for scammers or spammers, and as a result, users are often bombarded with spam from girls seeking customers for their discreet chat, or discreet webcam services. While adult chat or adult webcam services may be fun, it is not the type of discreet dating or discreet relationships most people are looking for. As such, we suggest trying tryhookup.com, where all members are carefully screened, and hence you will always be meeting someone who is likeminded in their search for a discreet relationship, discreet affair, discreet encounter, or discreet adventure. ;
Married dating in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne, France. About 40-50% of the sugar daddies on tryhookup.com are married but looking, or are married seeking an extra-marital affair or a mistress lover. Unlike other married dating websites such as AshleyMadison.com or Philanders.com or MarriedButLooking.com, tryhookup.com does not exclusively cater to married dating or cheating arrangements. But, since an arranged relationship does sometime involve married people, it’s not surprising many who are married but looking use our website in search of their perfect discreet affair. Our founder is often asked by the Media if he supports extramarital affairs – his answer is that while he does not make any moral judgments, he notes that married dating isn’t for everyone. However, that said, tryhookup.com does have 50-60% of single, divorced or widowed sugar daddies participating. It is also important to note that approximately 10-15% of members on a regular dating site, such as PlentyofFish.com or Match.com are in fact married and looking, except they lie about their real married status. An affair is sometimes referred as a form of nonmonogamy, infidelity or adultery. Where an affair lacks both overt and covert sexual behavior and yet exhibits intense or enduring emotional intimacy it may be referred to as an emotional affair, platonic love, or a romantic friendship. Other terms that describes an affair, include discreet affair, private affair, office affair or a secret affair. An affair also may be referred to as sex with the opposite sex dramatically. Affair may also describe part of an agreement of an open marriage, such as swinging, which sanctions some forms of extramarital sex and and not others. When one of the non-sanctioned affairs occurs it is described as infidelity and often experienced as a betrayal both of trust and integrity. Also: emotional affair, infidelity, adultery, cheating, mistress (lover), friendship, platonic love, or romantic friendship. We have interviewed many married sugar daddies and married sugar babies, as to why they seek a married affair. The average married Hookup tells us he is bored, or that sexual passion no longer exist in his marriage, that having an extramarital affair or engaging in married dating is the only way he is going to be able to stay with his wife. Yet, other married Hookup claims having a discreet affair helps add spice to his married life, so all in all, married dating helps him stay in his marriage. The married One Night Stand usually has a different reason for engaging in such tryst. She still loves her husband, but is looking for fun on the side, or her extramarital arrangement allows her to help her family out financially. In a recent survey conducted by Harvard, over 60% of its alumni claimed to have had an extramarital affair at least once or have considered cheating while married. It seems married dating and discreet affairs are much more popular than we all think. If you are going to consider married dating in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne, France, we suggest using tryhookup.com for a number of reasons. On SA, members are able to have extramarital affairs without any strings attached. The last thing a person wants in a married dating scenario is to have one or more parties fall in love. An arrangement by its nature allows both parties to specify exactly what they look for in an extramarital affair, while avoiding the things they do not want – clinginess, attachment, or dependencies. Married dating is usually conducted as discreet affairs or secret affairs. Being discreet or secretive is what makes cheating all the more exciting, and one of the main reasons why many people engage in extramarital affairs or extramarital tryst. In addition, tryhookup provides many privacy and discreet features to allow cheaters the ability to keep their affairs secret. ;
Looking for a casual encounter in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne, France? tryhookup.com provides the largest selection of wealthy and gorgeous people in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne, France looking for casual relationships, casual dating, casual arrangements, casual encounters, discreet encounters, casual sex, casual friendship, or casual affairs. Unlike other casual encounters website such as Craigslist.com, Craigslist.org, OnlineBootyCall.com, or CasualEncounters.com, tryhookup.com is the only casual dating website to exclusively cater to wealthy and gorgeous people looking for a flirtatious fling. Casual encounters or casual sex, refers to certain types of sexual activity outside the context of a romantic relationship. The term is not always used consistently: some use it to refer to any extramarital sex, some use it to refer to sex in a casual relationship, whereas others reserve its use for one-time encounters (such as one night stands), promiscuity, or to refer to sex in the absence of emotional attachment or love (e.g., NSA or no strings attached relationship). Another term for casual encounters is a hookup which refers to casual sex activity. An extended hookup sometimes refers to prolonged instances of casual sex interactions. This is a situation in which the involved parties occasionally meet for casual sex multiple times, always without a long-term commitment. This is a casual relationship specifically for sex and without any emotional aspect. Other colloquial terms used to describe two people engaged in a relationship in which there is no emotional but purely sexual involvement are fuck buddies, one night stands, one night love, friends with benefits, and booty call. The reason so many people in Renault, Champagne-Ardenne, France seek casual encounters vary from individual to individual. But tryhookup.com is the best dating website for those wanting casual affairs and discreet encounters. Those seeking casual dating typically need extra excitement in their life. Originally, a one-night stand referred to a single night theatre performance, usually by a guest group on tour. Today, however, the term is more commonly understood as a single sexual encounter or casual encounter between individuals, where neither individual has any immediate intention or expectation of establishing a long-term sexual or romantic relationship. One night stands are commonly frowned upon in society because they have potential to ruin a person's reputation, it having the same negativity as adultery or fornication. Individuals participating in a one-night stand typically have not known each other long and have had minimal time to get to know each other before engaging in sexual activity. A one-night sexual encounter is not necessarily always a one-night stand; the crucial distinction is the expectation or intention that the relationship will not necessarily be extended beyond the initial sexual encounter. A one-night stand is differentiated from prostitution, as it takes place without direct payment of money and from a casual relationship, which may not initially involve sex and may continue long-term. A one-night stand can be thought of as an irregular and unplanned sexual encounter between individuals. The participants will usually have little or no contact with one another aside from sex. Thus it is possible to have multiple one-night stands with the same person, provided that there is no regularity to the encounters or planning involved in the casual encounters. However, where the people involved have a regular sexual relationship without romantic involvement, this is generally considered a casual encounter or casual relationship (also referred to using terms such as "no strings attached" or "friends with benefits" or a "fuck buddy"), and is generally considered distinct from the one-night stand phenomenon. ;
On tryhookup.com, you will see the field “Desired Allowance” or “My Budget”. What is an allowance? Well, let’s start first by defining what an allowance is not. An allowance is not money in exchange for sex. That would be prostitution and is strictly forbidden on our website. An allowance is a term coined up by us to mirror the allowance a parent gives to their child or children. Since we use the terminology of a Hookup and a One Night Stand, the term allowance ended up being the perfect phrase suggesting the caring relationship between a “daddy” and a “baby”. The Hookup budget and the One Night Stand allowance has always been a matter for heated discussion and debate. But the budget or the allowance isn’t a cash payment. Rather it’s the disposable income the Hookup has, and that he is willing to spend each month on his sugar lifestyle, i.e., going out on dates, transportation, or helping his One Night Stand with her credit card bills, college tuition, utility bills, car loans, rent, etc. While there have been many successful arrangements forged on tryhookup.com, we have also been told many horror stories of fake sugar daddies who promises his sugar babies the world, only to never be heard of again once he gets what he wants. So for the sugar babies who are expecting a rent free arrangement, or having her bills paid on time monthly, its important to work on your relationship with a Hookup first. A real Hookup who is a gentleman will not ask for sex on the first date, and if he does, he’s probably a John, not a Hookup. However, that said, it’s also important to note that many sugar babies aren’t really genuine sugar babies looking to find sugar relationships. The real Hookup is a gentleman who understands that intimacy comes after building trust, respect and mutual chemistry. The real Hookup has a real budget, i.e., real disposable income he can spend each month to pamper his One Night Stand. For those sugar babies out there, do be honest about what you are looking for. If you want some tuition assistance or someone to provide a scholarship for your college, say so, so the right college sponsor with the right budget can offer you an allowance for your college or provide you with a scholarship to complete your degree. If you want to have your rent paid, or to live rent free, then say you want a sponsor for your rent, or a benefactor who will pay your rent, then say so. The more straightforward about what you want, then the more likely you are to meet the Hookup who will give you what you desire. But the most important rule is to build friendship and trust first, and do not sleep with the potential Hookup on the first date or even on the second date. In fact, don’t even start a sexual relationship with a potential Hookup until he actually becomes a Hookup, meaning either pay two semesters of your tuition, signs an agreement to provide scholarship, or sign his name for a 6 months lease on your apartment. Similarly, we ask sugar daddies never to send money to any potential One Night Stand who asks for money up front. ;