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Climate

Melbourne has a moderate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb).[54] and is well known for its changeable weather conditions. This is due different pressure system and wind pattern, a combination that creates weather systems that often circle the bay.[55] The phrase "four seasons in one day" is part of popular culture and observed by many visitors to the city.[56] Melbourne is colder than other mainland Australian state capital cities in the winter. The lowest maximum on record is 4.4 Â°C (39.9 Â°F), on 4 July 1901.[57] However, snowfalls are extremely rare: the most recent occurrence of sleet in the CBD was on 25 July 1986 and the most recent snowfalls in the outer eastern suburbs and Mount Dandenong were on 10 August 2005,[58] 15 November 2006, 25 December 2006[59] and 10 August 2008.[60] More commonly, Melbourne experiences frosts and fog in winter. During the spring, Melbourne commonly enjoys extended periods of mild weather and clear skies. Melbourne and Sydney's average January and February daily highs are similar.[61][62] However, Melbourne's summers are notable for days of extreme heat, with Melbourne holding the Australian capital city extreme temperature record of 46.4°C, set on 7 February 2009.[63]

Contemporary Melbourne

Since 1997, Melbourne has maintained significant population and employment growth. There has been substantial international investment in the city's industries and property market. Major inner-city urban renewal has occurred in areas such as Southbank, Port Melbourne, Melbourne Docklands and, more recently, South Wharf. Figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics showed that Melbourne sustained the highest population increase and economic growth rate of any Australian capital city in the three years ended June 2004.[44]

Culture

Melbourne is widely regarded as the cultural and sport capital of Australia[96][97]. It has thrice shared top position[98] in a survey by The Economist of the World's Most Livable Cities on the basis of its cultural attributes, climate, cost of living, and social conditions such as crime rates and health care, in 2002,[99] 2004 and 2005.[100] In recent years rising property prices have led to Melbourne being named the 36th least affordable city in the world and the second least affordable in Australia.[101] The city celebrates a wide variety of annual cultural events, performing arts and architecture. Melbourne is also considered to be Australia's live music capital with a large proportion of successful Australian artists emerging from the Melbourne live music scene. Melbourne has a large international student community - and more international students per capita than any city in the world.[102] Street Art in Melbourne is becoming increasingly popular with the Lonely Planet guides listing it as a major attraction. The city is also admired as one of the great cities of the Victorian Age (1837-1901) and a vigorous city life intersects with an impressive range of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century buildings.[103]

Demographics

Melbourne is a diverse and multicultural city and melting pot.[125] This is reflected by the fact that the city is home to restaurants serving cuisines from all over the world. Almost a quarter of Victoria's population was born overseas, and the city is home to residents from 233 countries, who speak over 180 languages and dialects and follow 116 religious faiths. Melbourne has the second largest Asian population in Australia, which includes the largest Vietnamese, Indian and Sri Lankan communities in the country.[126][127][128] The first European settlers in Melbourne were British and Irish. These two groups accounted for nearly all arrivals before the gold rush, and supplied the predominant number of immigrants to the city until the Second World War. Melbourne was transformed by the 1850s gold rush; within months of the discovery of gold in August 1852, the city's population had increased by nearly three-quarters, from 25,000 to 40,000 inhabitants.[129] Thereafter, growth was exponential and by 1865, Melbourne had overtaken Sydney as Australia's most populous city.[130] Large numbers of Chinese, German and United States nationals were to be found on the goldfields and subsequently in Melbourne. The various nationalities involved in the Eureka Stockade revolt nearby give some indication of the migration flows in the second half of the nineteenth century.[131] In the aftermath of the Second World War, Melbourne experienced unprecedented inflows from Southern Europe, primarily Greece, Italy, Malta, Croatia, Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina also West Asia mostly from Lebanon and Turkey. According to the 2001 Census, there were 151,785 ethnic Greeks in the metropolitan area.[132] 47% of all Greek Australians live in Melbourne.[133] Melbourne and the Greek city of Thessaloniki became sister cities in 1984[134], as commemorated by a marble stele (pillar) from the Prefecture of Thessaloniki, unveiled 11 November 2008[135]. Ethnic Chinese and Vietnamese also maintain significant presences. Melbourne exceeds the national average in terms of proportion of residents born overseas: 34.8% compared to a national average of 23.1%. In concordance with national data, Britain is the most commonly reported overseas country of birth, with 4.7 %, followed by Italy (2.4%), Greece (1.9 %) and then China (1.3 %). Melbourne also features substantial Vietnamese, Indian and Sri Lankan-born communities, in addition to recent South African and Sudanese influxes. Over two-thirds of people in Melbourne speak only English at home (68.8 %). Italian is the second most common home language (4.0 %), with Greek third and Chinese fourth, each with over 100,000 speakers.[136] Melbourne is also home to a wide range of religious faiths. The largest of which is Christian (64%) with a large Catholic population (28.3%).[137] However Melbourne and indeed Australia are highly secularised, with the proportion of people identifying themselves as Christian declining from 96% in 1901 to 64% in 2006 and those who did not state their religion or declared no religion rising from 2% to over 30% over the same period.[138] Nevertheless, the large Christian population is signified by the city's two large cathedrals - St Patrick's (Roman Catholic),[139] and St Paul's (Anglican).[140] Both were built in the Victorian era and are of considerable heritage significance as major landmarks of the city.[141] The next highest response was No Religion (20.0%, 717,717), Anglican (12.1%, 433,546), Eastern Orthodox (5.9%, 212,887) and the Uniting Church (4.0%, 143,552).[137] Buddhists, Muslims, Jews, Hindus and Sikhs collectively account for 7.5% of the population. The Jewish population in Melbourne is significant as four out of ten Australian Jews call Melbourne home. The city is also residence to the largest number of Holocaust survivors of any Australian city,[142] indeed the highest per capita concentration outside Israel itself.[143] To service the needs of the vibrant Jewish community, Melbourne's Jewry have established multiple synagogues, which today number over 30,[144] along with a local Jewish newspaper.[145] Melbourne's largest university - Monash University is named after prominent Jewish general and statesman, John Monash.[146] Although Victoria's net interstate migration has fluctuated, the Melbourne statistical division has grown by approximately 50,000 people a year since 2003. Melbourne has now attracted the largest proportion of international overseas immigrants (48,000) finding it outpacing Sydney's international migrant intake, along with having strong interstate migration from Sydney and other capitals due to more affordable housing and cost of living, which have been two recent key factors driving Melbourne's growth.[147] In recent years, Melton, Wyndham and Casey, part of the Melbourne statistical division, have recorded the highest growth rate of all local government areas in Australia. Despite a demographic study stating that Melbourne could overtake Sydney in population by 2028,[148] the ABS has projected in two scenarios that Sydney will remain larger than Melbourne beyond 2056, albeit by a margin of less than 3% compared to a margin of 12% today. However, the first scenario projects that Melbourne's population overtakes Sydney in 2039, primarily due to larger levels of internal migration losses assumed for Sydney.[149] After a trend of declining population density since Second World War, the city has seen increased density in the inner and western suburbs aided in part by Victorian Government planning blueprints, such as Postcode 3000 and Melbourne 2030 which have aimed to curtail the urban sprawl.[150] [151]

Description

 â€¢ Summer (DST) AEDT (UTC+11) Melbourne (pronounced /ˈmÉ›lbÉšn/[3], in Australia [ˈmelbÉ™n],[4] or locally [ˈmælbÉ™n][5]) is the capital and largest city of the State of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne city centre is the anchor of the larger geographic region and statistical division known as the Greater Melbourne metropolitan area[6]—of which Melbourne is the common name. In 2008, it had a population of approximately 3.9 million.[7] Melbourne was named after the 2nd Viscount Melbourne, William Lamb in 1837;[8] the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the reigns of both King William IV and Queen Victoria. It is located on the lower reaches of the Yarra River and on the northern and eastern shorelines of Port Phillip, extending into their hinterland. It was established in 1835 (47 years after the first European settlement of Australia), by free settlers from Van Diemen’s Land,[8] as a pastoral township around the estuary of the Yarra River. Melbourne was declared a city by Queen Victoria in 1847,[9] and became the capital of Victoria when the district was declared a separate colony from New South Wales in 1851. When gold was discovered in the district during the 1850s (which sparked the Victorian gold rush) Melbourne was transformed into a wealthy metropolis, and one of the largest and richest cities in the world, by the 1880s.[10][11] Upon the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne served as the seat of government of the newly founded Commonwealth of Australia until 1927 while the new nation's capital of Canberra was being built. Melbourne is a centre for arts, commerce, education, industry, sports and tourism. Since 2002, it has been consistently ranked among the World's Most Livable Cities by The Economist.[12] In 2008, it was also recognised as a beta world city+ in the World Cities Study Group’s inventory by Loughborough University.[13] The city is notable for its distinct blend of Victorian and contemporary architecture,[14] expansive parks and gardens and multicultural society.[15] It is also home to the World’s largest tram network.[16] It is recognised as Australia's 'cultural and sporting capital' and is home to some of the nation’s most significant cultural and sporting institutions.[17] In 2007, it was also ranked in the top five university cities in the Global University Cities Index by RMIT,[18] and was classified as a City of Literature by UNESCO in 2008.[19] Melbourne has also played host to a number of significant international and national events, including: the Parliament of Australia's first sitting in 1901, 1956 Summer Olympics, Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 1981, World Economic Forum in 2000, 2006 Commonwealth Games and G20 Summit in the same year.[20][21]

Early history and foundation

Before the arrival of European settlers, the area was occupied for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years[22] by under 20,000[23] hunter-gatherers from three indigenous regional tribes: the Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung and Wathaurong.[24] The area was an important meeting place for clans and territories of the Kulin nation alliance as well as a vital source of food and water.[8][25] The first European settlement in Victoria was established in 1803 on Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento, but this settlement was abandoned due to a perceived lack of resources. It would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted.[26] In May and June 1835, the area that is now central and northern Melbourne was explored by John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association, who negotiated a transaction for 600,000 acres (2,400 km2; 940 sq mi) of land from eight Wurundjeri elders.[8][25] Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village", and returned to Launceston in Tasmania (then known as Van Diemen's Land). However, by the time a settlement party from the Association arrived to establish the new village, a separate group led by John Pascoe Fawkner had already arrived aboard the Enterprize and established a settlement at the same location, on 30 August 1835. The two groups ultimately agreed to share the settlement. It is not known what Melbourne was called before the arrival of Europeans. Early European settlers mistranslated the words "Doutta-galla" which are believed to have been the name of a prominent tribal member, but said by some to also translate as "treeless plain". This was nevertheless used as one of the early names for the colony.[27] Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by the New South Wales government (then governing all of eastern mainland Australia), which compensated the Association.[8] Although this meant the settlers were now trespassing on Crown land, the government reluctantly accepted the settlers' fait accompli and allowed the town (known at first by various names, including 'Bearbrass'[8]) to remain. In 1836, Governor Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, and commissioned the first plan for the Hoddle Grid in 1837.[28] Later that year, the settlement was named Melbourne after the British prime minister William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, who resided in the village of Melbourne in Derbyshire, and the General Post Office opened under that name on 13 April 1837.[29] Melbourne was declared a city by letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847.[9] The Port Phillip District became a separate colony of Victoria in 1851 with Melbourne as its capital.

Economy

Melbourne is home to Australia's busiest seaport and much of Australia's automotive industry, which include Ford and Toyota manufacturing facilities, and the engine manufacturing facility of Holden. It is home to many other manufacturing industries, along with being a major business and financial centre.[114] International freight is an important industry. The city's port, Australia's largest, handles more than $75 billion in trade every year and 39% of the nation's container trade.[93][115][116] Melbourne Airport provides an entry point for national and international visitors, and is Australia's second busiest airport. Melbourne is also a major technology hub, with an ICT industry that employs over 60,000 people (one third of Australia's ICT workforce), has a turnover of $19.8 billion and export revenues of $615 million. Melbourne retains a significant presence of being a financial centre for Asia-Pacific. Two of the big four banks, NAB and ANZ, are headquartered in Melbourne. The city has carved out a niche as Australia’s leading centre for superannuation (pension) funds, with 40% of the total, and 65% of industry super-funds including the $40 billion-dollar Federal Government Future Fund. Tourism also plays an important role in Melbourne's economy, with approximately 7.6 million domestic visitors and 1.88 million international visitors in 2004.[117] In 2008, Melbourne overtook Sydney with the amount of money that domestic tourists spent in the city.[118] The city is headquarters for many of Australia's largest corporations, including five of the ten largest in the country (based on revenue)[119] (ANZ, BHP Billiton, the National Australia Bank, Rio Tinto and Telstra); as well as such representative bodies and thinktanks as the Business Council of Australia and the Australian Council of Trade Unions. Melbourne rated 34th within the top 50 financial cities as surveyed by the Mastercard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index (2007),[120] between Barcelona and Geneva, and second only to Sydney (14th) in Australia. Most recent major infrastructure projects, such as the redevelopment of Southern Cross Station (formerly Spencer Street Station),[121] have been centred around the 2006 Commonwealth Games, which were held in the city from 15 March to 26 March 2006. The centrepiece of the Commonwealth Games projects was the redevelopment of the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the stadium used for the opening and closing ceremonies of the Games. The project involved rebuilding the northern half of the stadium and laying a temporary athletics track at a cost of $434 million.[122] Melbourne has also been attracting an increasing share of domestic and international conference markets. Construction began in February 2006 of a $1 billion 5000-seat international convention centre, Hilton Hotel and commercial precinct adjacent to the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre to link development along the Yarra River with the Southbank precinct and multi-billion dollar Docklands redevelopment.[123]

Education

Education is overseen statewide by the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD), whose role is to 'provide policy and planning advice for the delivery of education'.[159] It acts as advisor to two state ministers, that for Education and for Children and Early Childhood Development.

Environment, Pollution and Ecology

Like many urban environments, Melbourne faces some significant environmental issues, many of them relating to the city's large urban footprint and urban sprawl and the demand for infrastructure and services. One such issue is water usage, drought and low rainfall. Drought in Victoria, low rainfalls and high temperatures deplete Melbourne water supplies and climate change will have a long-term impact on the water supplies of Melbourne.[65] Melbourne has been in a drought since 1997.[66] In response to low water supplies and low rainfall due to drought, the government implemented water restrictions and a range of other options including: water recycling schemes for the city, incentives for household water tanks, greywater systems, water consumption awareness initiatives, and other water saving and reuse initiatives; also, in June 2007, the Bracks Government announced that a $3.1 billion Wonthaggi desalination plant would be built on Victoria's south-east coast, capable of treating 150 billion litres of water per year,[67] as well as a 70 km (43 mi) pipeline from the Goulburn area in Victoria's north to Melbourne and a new water pipeline linking Melbourne and Geelong.[68] In response to Attribution of recent climate change, the City of Melbourne, in 2002, set a target to reduce carbon emissions to net zero by 2020[69] however not all metropolitan municipalities have followed, with the City of Glen Eira notably deciding not to be carbon neutral.[70] Melbourne has one of the largest urban footprints in the world due to its low density housing, resulting in a vast suburban sprawl, with a high level of car dependence and minimal public transport outside of inner areas.[71] Much of the vegetation within the city are non-native species, most of European origin, and in many cases plays host to invasive species and noxious weeds.[72] Significant introduced urban pests include the Common Myna,[73] Feral Pigeon,[74] Common Starling, Brown Rat, European Wasp,[75] and Red Fox.[76] Many outlying suburbs, particularly those in the Yarra Valley and the hills to the north-east and east, have gone for extended periods without regenerative fires leading to a lack of saplings and undergrowth in urbanised native bushland. The Department of Sustainability and Environment partially addresses this problem by regularly burning off.[77][78] Several national parks have been designated around the urban area of Melbourne, including the Mornington Peninsula National Park, Port Phillip Heads Marine National Park and Point Nepean National Park in the south east, Organ Pipes National Park to the north and Dandenong Ranges National Park to the east. There are also a number of significant state parks just outside Melbourne.[79][80] Responsibility for regulating pollution falls under the jurisdiction of the EPA Victoria and several local councils. Air pollution, by world standards, is classified as being good, however summer and autumn are the worst times of year for atmospheric haze in the urban area.[81][82] Another current environmental issue in Melbourne is the Victorian government project of channel deepening Melbourne Ports by dredging Port Phillip Bay - the Port Phillip Channel Deepening Project. It is subject to controversy and strict regulations among fears that beaches and marine wildlife could be affected by the disturbance of heavy metals and other industrial sediments.[53][83] Other major pollution problems in Melbourne include levels of bacteria including E-coli in the Yarra River and its tributaries caused by septic systems,[84] as well as litter. Up to 350,000 cigarette butts enter the storm water runoff every day.[85] Several programs are being implemented to minimise beach and river pollution.[53][86]

Federation of Australia

At the time of Australia's federation on 1 January 1901, Melbourne became the temporary seat of government of the federation. The first federal parliament was convened on 9 May 1901 in the Royal Exhibition Building, where it was located until 1927, when it was moved to Canberra. The governor-general remained at Government House until 1930 and many major national institutions remained in Melbourne well into the twentieth century.[39] While Sydney had overtaken Melbourne in size, Melbourne's transport networks were more extensive. Flinders Street Station was the world's busiest passenger station in 1927 and Melbourne's tram network overtook Sydney's to become the worlds largest in the 1940s. During World War II, Melbourne industries thrived on wartime production and the city became Australia's leading manufacturing centre.[citation needed]

Further reading

* Brown-May, Andrew; Shurlee Swain (2005). The Encyclopedia of Melbourne. Melbourne, Vic: Cambridge University Press,. pp. 820.  * Bell, Agnes Paton (1965). Melbourne: John Batman's Village. Melbourne, Vic: Cassell Australia,. pp. 178.  * McClymont, David; Mark Armstrong (2000). Lonely Planet Melbourne. Lonely Planet. pp. 200 pages. ISBN 1864501243, 9781864501247. http://books.google.com/books?id=1pwGAAAACAAJ&dq=Melbourne.  * Cecil, David (1954). Melbourne. Bobbs-Merrill. pp. 450.  * Newnham, William Henry (1956). Melbourne: The Biography of a City. F. W. Cheshire. pp. 225 pages.  * Boldrewood, Rolf (1896). Old Melbourne Memories. Macmillan and Co. pp. 259 pages.  * Borthwick, John Stephen; David McGonigal (1990). Insight Guide: Melbourne. Prentice Hall Travel. pp. 247. ISBN 0134677137, 9780134677132.  * Priestley, Susan (1995). South Melbourne: A History. Melbourne University Press. pp. 455. ISBN 0522846645, 9780522846645.  * Caroll, Brian (1972). Melbourne: An Illustrated History. Lansdowne. pp. 128. ISBN 0701801956, 9780701801953.  * Coote, Maree (2003). The Melbourne Book: A History of Now. Hardie Grant Books. pp. 356. ISBN 1740660498, 9781740660495.  * Briggs, John Joseph (1852). The History of Melbourne, in the County of Derby: Including Biographical Notices of the Coke, Melbourne, and Hardinge Families. Bemrose & Son. pp. 205.  * Lewis, Miles Bannatyne; Philip Goad, Alan Mayne (1994). Melbourne: The City's History and Development (2nd ed. ed.). City of Melbourne. ISBN 0949624713, 9780949624710. 

Governance

The Melbourne City Council governs the City of Melbourne, which takes in the CBD and a few adjoining inner suburbs. However the head of the Melbourne City Council, the Lord Mayor of Melbourne, is frequently treated as a representative of greater Melbourne (the entire metropolitan area),[157] particularly when interstate or overseas. Robert Doyle, elected in 2008, is current Lord Mayor. The rest of the metropolitan area is divided into 31 local government areas. All these are designated as Cities, except for five on the city's outer fringes which are classified as Shires. Local government authorities have elected councils and are responsible for a range of functions set out in the Local Government Act 1989[158], such as urban planning and waste management. Most non-local government services are provided or regulated by the Victorian state government, which governs from Parliament House in Spring Street. These include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, health and planning of major infrastructure projects.

Health

The Government of Victoria's Department of Human Services oversees approximately 30 public hospitals in the Melbourne metropolitan region, and 13 health services organisations.[166] There are many major medical, neuroscience and biotechnology research institutions located in Melbourne: St. Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, Australian Stem Cell Centre, the Burnet Institute, Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Victorian Institute of Chemical Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Howard Florey Institute, the Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute and the Australian Synchrotron.[167] Many of these institutions are associated with and are located near universities.

Media

Melbourne is served by three daily newspapers, the Herald Sun (tabloid),[152] The Age (broadsheet)[153] and The Australian (national broadsheet).[154] The free mX is also distributed every weekday afternoon at railway stations and on the streets of central Melbourne.[155] Melbourne is served by six television stations: HSV-7, which broadcasts from the Melbourne Docklands precinct; GTV-9, which broadcasts from their Richmond studios; and ATV-10, which broadcasts from the Como Complex in South Yarra. National stations that broadcast into Melbourne include the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), which has two studios, one at Ripponlea and another at Southbank; and Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), which broadcasts from their studios at Federation Square in central Melbourne. C31 Melbourne is the only local community television station in Melbourne, and its broadcast range also branches out to Geelong. Melbourne also receives Pay TV, largely through cable services. Foxtel and Optus are the main Pay TV providers. A number of radio stations service the areas of Melbourne and beyond on the AM and FM band. Popular stations on the FM band include DMG Radio channels Nova 100 and Vega 91.5 as well as Australian Radio Network's Gold 104.3 and Mix 101.1, both in Richmond, and Austereo channels Fox FM and Triple M, which share studios in South Melbourne and Triple J. Stations that are popular on the AM band include 774 ABC Melbourne, 3AW, a prominently talkback radio station, and its affiliate, Magic 1278, which plays a selection of music from the 1930s-60s. Community radio is also strong in Melbourne, with a number of community and subscription based radio stations on both the AM and FM bands. The best known of these stations are Triple R, SYN, 3JOY, PBS & 3CR. There are also a number of community stations based around the greater Melbourne area.[156]

Notes

[a] The variant spelling 'Melbournian' is sometimes found but is considered grammatically incorrect. The term 'Melbournite' is also sometimes used. See:[187]

Post-war period

After the war, Melbourne expanded rapidly, its growth boosted by an influx of immigrants and the prestige of hosting the Olympic Games in 1956. The post-war period saw a major urban renewal of the CBD and St Kilda Road which significantly modernised the city.[40] New Melbourne City Council fire regulations and redevelopment saw most of the taller pre-war CBD buildings demolished, despite the efforts of the National Trust of Victoria and the Save Collins Street movement. Many of the larger suburban mansions from the boom era were either demolished or subdivided. The signs of Whelan the Wrecker became a symbol of Melbourne's progressive spirit during this era. To counter the trend towards low-density suburban residential growth, the government began a series of controversial "slum reclamation" public housing projects in the inner city by the Housing Commission of Victoria which resulted in demolition of many neighbourhoods and a proliferation of high-rise towers.[41] In later years, increasing motor traffic led to major freeway development, causing the city to sprawl outwards. The Henry Bolte Victorian government sought to rapidly modernise Melbourne. Major road projects including the remodelling of St Kilda Junction, the widening of Hoddle Street and then the extensive 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan changed the face of the city into an automobile dominated environment. Australia's financial and mining booms between 1969 and 1970 resulted in establishment of the headquarters of many major companies (BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, among others) in the city. Nauru's then booming economy fuelled several ambitious investments in Melbourne, such as Nauru House. Melbourne remained Australia's business and financial capital until the late 1970s, when it began to lose this primacy to Sydney.[42] As the centre of Australia's "rust belt", Melbourne experienced the worst of Victoria's economic slump between 1989 to 1992, following the collapse of several of its financial institutions. In 1992 the newly elected Kennett Coalition government began a campaign to revive the economy with an aggressive development campaign of public works centred on Melbourne and the promotion of the city as a tourist destination with a focus on major events and sports tourism, attracting the Australian Grand Prix to the city. Major projects included the Melbourne Museum, Federation Square, the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre, Crown Casino and CityLink tollway. Other strategies included the privatisation of some of Melbourne's services, including power and public transport, but also a reduction in funding to public services such as health and education.[43]

Preschool, primary and secondary

Primary and secondary assessment, curriculum development and educational research initiatives throughout Melbourne and Victoria is undertaken by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (VCAA),[160] which offers the Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS) and Achievement Improvement Monitor (AIM) certificates from years Prep through Year 10, and the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) and Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning (VCAL) as part of senior secondary programs (Years 11 to 12). Many high schools in Australia are called 'Secondary Colleges'. There are two selective public schools in Melbourne, but all public schools may restrict entry to students living in their regional 'zone'.[161][162] Although non-tertiary public education is free, 35% of students attend a private primary or secondary school.[163] The most numerous private schools are Catholic, and the rest are independent (see Public and Private Education in Australia).

References

* 2002: "Vancouver and Melbourne top city league". BBC News. 4 October 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/2299119.stm. Retrieved on 2008-12-127.  * 2005: "Vancouver is 'best place to live'". BBC News. 4 October 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4306936.stm. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.  * 2007: "Lagos, worst city to live". Online Nigeria. http://nm.onlinenigeria.com/templates/?a=5469&z=17. Retrieved on 2009-02-07.  (password required) * 2009: Go north... or go south, The Economist, Jun 8th 2009

See also

Textbooks from Wikibooks * Timeline of Melbourne history * Melbourne tourism * List of Melburnians * List of Melbourne suburbs * List of Mayors and Lord Mayors of Melbourne * Local Government Areas of Victoria * Crime in Melbourne * List of songs about Melbourne * List of heritage listed buildings in Melbourne * Melway â€” the native street directory and general information source in Melbourne. * Hook turn â€” driving manoeuvre that is common in the inner city area. * City of Literature â€” Melbourne was named a City of Literature by UNESCO in 2008. * Melbourne Model * The Southern Star (observation wheel) * 2am Lockout

Sport

Melbourne is a notable sporting location as the host city for the 1956 Summer Olympics games, the first Olympic Games ever held in Australia[104] and the southern hemisphere, along with the 2006 Commonwealth Games.[105][106] In recent years, the city has claimed the SportsBusiness title "World's Ultimate Sports City".[107] The city is home to the National Sports Museum, which until 2006 was located outside the members pavilion at the Melbourne Cricket Ground and reopened in 2008 in the Great Northern Stand.[108] Australian rules football and cricket are the most popular sports in Melbourne and also the spiritual home of these two sports in Australia and both are mostly played in the same stadia in the city and its suburbs. The first ever official cricket Test match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in March 1877 and the Melbourne Cricket Ground is the largest cricket ground in the world. The first Australian rules football matches were played in Melbourne in 1859 and the Australian Football League is headquartered at Docklands Stadium. Nine of its teams are based in the Melbourne metropolitan area and the five Melbourne AFL matches per week attract an average 40,000 people per game.[109] Additionally, the city annually hosts the AFL Grand Final. The city is also home to several professional franchises in national competitions including the Melbourne Storm (rugby league),[110] who play in the NRL competition, Melbourne Victory (football (soccer)) who play in the A-league, netball team Melbourne Vixens who play in the trans-Tasman trophy ANZ Championship. A new unannounced basketball team from Melbourne is expected to be announced soon for the 2009-2010 revamped National Basketball League. Melbourne is home to the three major annual international sporting events in the Australian Open (tennis),[111] Melbourne Cup (horse racing),[112] and the Australian Grand Prix (Formula One).[113]

Tertiary, vocational and research

Melbourne's two largest universities are the University of Melbourne and Monash University, the largest university in Australia. Both are members of the Group of Eight. Melbourne University ranked second among Australian universities in the 2006 THES international rankings.[164] While The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne as the 22nd best university in the world, Monash University was ranked the 38th best university in the world. Melbourne was ranked the world's fourth top university city in 2008 after London, Boston and Tokyo.[165] Other notable universities include the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Deakin University and La Trobe University which have also placed in the THES rankings. Some of the nation's oldest educational institutions and faculities are located in Melbourne, including the oldest Engineering (1860), Medical (1862), Dental (1897) and Music (1891) schools and the oldest law course in Australia (1857), all at the University of Melbourne. The University of Melbourne is also the oldest university in Victoria and the second oldest university in Australia. In recent years, the number of international students at Melbourne's universities has risen rapidly, a result of an increasing number of places being made available to full fee paying students.

The Land Boom and Bust

By the 1880s, Melbourne's boom was peaking. The city had become the second largest in the British Empire (after London)[32], and the richest in the world.[11] Melbourne hosted five international exhibitions at the large purpose-built Exhibition Building in the decade of prosperity. During an 1885 visit, English journalist George Augustus Henry Sala coined the phrase "Marvellous Melbourne", which stuck long into the twentieth century. Growing building activity culminated in the "Land Boom" which in 1888 reached a peak of speculative development fuelled by consumer confidence and escalating land value. As a result of the boom, large commercial buildings, coffee palaces, terrace housing and palatial mansions proliferated in the city.[33] and the establishment of a hydraulic facility in 1887[34] paved the way for elevators and high-rise buildings to dramatically change the city's skyline. This period also saw the expansion of a major radial rail-based transport network.[35] The brash boosterism which typified Melbourne during this time came to a halt in 1891 when the start of a severe depression hit the city's economy, sending the local finance and property industries into chaos[33][36] during which 16 small banks and building societies collapsed and 133 limited companies went into liquidation. The Melbourne financial crisis helped trigger the Australian economic depression of 1890s and the Australian banking crisis of 1893. The effects of the depression on the city were profound, although it did continue to grow slowly during the early twentieth century.[37][38]

Topography

Melbourne is located in the south-eastern part of mainland Australia, within the state of Victoria.[45][46] Geologically, it is built on the confluence of Quaternary lava flows to the west, Silurian mudstones to the east,[47] and Holocene sand accumulation to the southeast along Port Phillip. The southeastern suburbs are situated on the Selwyn fault[48] which transects Mount Martha and Cranbourne. Melbourne extends along the Yarra through the Yarra Valley[49] toward the Dandenong Ranges and Yarra Ranges to the east. It extends northward through the undulating bushland valleys of the Yarra's tributaries - Moonee Ponds Creek (toward Tullamarine Airport), Merri Creek, Darebin Creek and Plenty River to the outer suburban growth corridors of Craigieburn and Whittlesea. The city sprawls south-east through Dandenong to the growth corridor of Pakenham towards West Gippsland, and southward through the Dandenong Creek valley, the Mornington Peninsula and the city of Frankston taking in the peaks of Olivers Hill, Mount Martha and Arthurs Seat, extending along the shores of Port Phillip[50][51] as a single conurbation to reach the exclusive suburb of Portsea and Point Nepean. In the west, it extends along the Maribyrnong River and its tributaries north towards Sunbury and the foothills of the Macedon Ranges, and along the flat volcanic plain country towards Melton in the west, Werribee at the foothills of the You Yangs granite ridge and Geelong as part of the greater metropolitan area to the south-west. Melbourne's major bayside beaches are located in the south-eastern suburbs along the shores of Port Phillip Bay, in areas like Port Melbourne, Albert Park, St Kilda, Elwood, Brighton, Sandringham, Mentone and Frankston although there are beaches in the western suburbs of Altona and Williamstown. The nearest surf beaches are located 85 kilometres (53 mi) south-east of the Melbourne CBD in the back-beaches of Rye, Sorrento and Portsea.[52][53]

Transport

Melbourne has an integrated public transport system promoted under the Metlink brand. Originally laid out late in the 19th century when trains and trams were the primary methods of travelling to the suburbs, the 1950s saw an increase in private vehicles and freeway construction.[168] This trend has continued with successive governments despite relentless traffic congestion,[169] with a resulting drop in public transport modeshare from the 1940s level of around 25% to the current level of around 9%[170] Melbourne's public transport system was privatised in 1999.[171] Melbourne has the largest tram network in the world.[172][173][174] Melbourne's is Australia's only tram network to comprise more than a single line. Sections of the tram network are on roads, while others are separated or are light rail routes. Melbourne's trams are recognised as iconic cultural assets and a tourist attraction. Heritage trams operate on the free City Circle route, intended for visitors to Melbourne, and heritage restaurant trams travel through the city during the evening.[175] The Melbourne rail network consists of 16 suburban lines which radiate from the City Loop, a partially underground metro section of the network beneath the Central Business District (Hoddle Grid). Flinders Street Station is Melbourne's busiest railway station, and was the world's busiest passenger station in 1926. It remains a prominent Melbourne landmark and meeting place.[176] The city has rail connections with regional Victorian cities, as well as interstate rail services to Sydney and Adelaide, which depart from Melbourne's other major rail terminus, Southern Cross Station in Spencer Street. Melbourne's bus network consists of almost 300 routes which mainly service the outer suburbs fill the gaps in the network between rail and light rail services.[175][177] Melbourne has a high dependency on private cars for transport, with 7.1% of trips made by public transport.[178] However there has been a significant rise in patronage in the last two years mostly due to higher fuel prices,[179] since 2006, public transport patronage has grown by over 20%.[180] The largest number of cars are bought in the outer suburban area, while the inner suburbs with greater access to train and tram services enjoy higher public transport patronage. Melbourne has a total of 3.6 million private vehicles using 22,320 km (13,870 mi) of road, and one of the highest lengths of road per capita.[178] Major highways feeding into the city include the Eastern Freeway, Monash Freeway and West Gate Freeway (which spans the large Westgate Bridge), whilst other freeways circumnavigate the city or lead to other major cities, including CityLink, Eastlink, the Western Ring Road, Calder Freeway, Tullamarine Freeway (main airport link - no rail link) and the Hume Freeway which links Melbourne and Sydney.[181] The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port and also its busiest. In 2007, the port handled two million shipping containers in a 12 month period, making it one of the top five ports in the Southern Hemisphere.[115] Station Pier in Port Phillip Bay handles cruise ships and the Spirit of Tasmania ferries which cross Bass Strait to Tasmania.[182] Melbourne has four airports. Melbourne Airport located at Tullamarine is the city's main international and domestic gateway. The airport is home base for passenger airlines Jetstar and Tiger Airways Australia and cargo airlines Australian air Express and Toll Priority and is a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Blue. Avalon Airport, located between Melbourne and Geelong, is a secondary hub of Jetstar. It is also used as a freight and maintenance facility. This makes Melbourne the only city in Australia to have a second commercial airport. Moorabbin Airport is a significant general aviation airport in the city's south east as well as handling a limited number of passenger flights. Essendon Airport, which was once the city's main airport before the construction of the airport at Tullamarine, handles passenger flights, general aviation and some cargo flights.[183]

Twin towns — Sister cities

The City of Melbourne has six sister cities.[185] They are: * Osaka, Japan, 1978 * Tianjin, China, 1980 * Thessaloniki, Greece, 1984[186] * Boston, United States, 1985 * Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1989 * Milan, Italy, 2004 Some other local councils in the Melbourne metropolitan area have sister city relationships; see Local Government Areas of Victoria. Melbourne is a member of the C40: Large Cities Climate Leadership Group and the United Nations Global Compact - Cities Programme.

Urban structure

The original city (known today as the central business district or CBD) is laid out in the Hoddle Grid (dimensions of 1 by 0.5 miles (1.6 km Ã— 0.80 km)), its southern edge fronting onto the Yarra. Office and other commercial developments in Southbank and Docklands have made these adjoining areas functional extensions of the old CBD. The city centre is well known for its historic and attractive lanes and arcades (the most notable of which are Block Place and Royal Arcade) which contain a variety of shops and cafes.[87] The Melbourne CBD, compared with other Australian cities has comparatively unrestricted height limits and as the result of waves of post war development contains five of the six tallest buildings in Australia, the tallest of these being the Eureka Tower, which is situated in Southbank.[88] The Rialto tower, the city's second tallest, remains the tallest building in the old CBD, and still has an observation deck for visitors. The CBD and surrounds also contain many significant historic buildings such as the Royal Exhibition Building, the Melbourne Town Hall and Parliament House.[89][90] Although the area is described as the centre, it is not actually the demographic centre of Melbourne at all, due to an urban sprawl to the south east, the demographic centre being located at Bourne St, Glen Iris.[91] Melbourne is typical of Australian capital cities in that after the turn of the 20th century, it expanded with the underlying notion of a 'quarter acre home and garden' for every family, often referred to locally as the Australian Dream. Much of metropolitan Melbourne is accordingly characterised by low density sprawl. The provision of an extensive passenger railway and tram service in the earlier years of development encouraged this low density development, mostly in radial lines along the transport corridors. Melbourne is often referred to as Australia's garden city, and the state of Victoria was once known as the garden state.[82][92][93] There is an abundance of parks and gardens in Melbourne,[94] many close to the CBD with a variety of common and rare plant species amid landscaped vistas, pedestrian pathways and tree-lined avenues. There are also many parks in the surrounding suburbs of Melbourne, such as in the municipalities of Stonnington, Boroondara and Port Phillip, south east of the CBD. The extensive area covered by urban Melbourne is formally divided into hundreds of suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and administered as local government areas.[95]

Utilities

Gas is provided by private companies, as is electricity, which is sourced mostly from coal-fired power stations. Water storage and supply for Melbourne is managed by Melbourne Water, which is owned by the Victorian Government. The organisation is also responsible for management of sewerage and the major water catchments in the region and will be responsible for the Wonthaggi desalination plant and the North-South Pipeline. Water is mainly stored in the largest dam, the Thomson River Dam which is capable of holding around 60% of Melbourne's water capacity,[184] while smaller dams such as the Upper Yarra Dam and the Cardinia Reservoir carry secondary supplies. Numerous telecommunications companies provide Melbourne with terrestrial and mobile telecommunications services and wireless internet services.

Victorian gold rush

The discovery of gold in Victoria in the same year led to the Victorian gold rush, and Melbourne, which provided most service industries and served as the major port for the region, experienced rapid growth. Migration to Melbourne, particularly from overseas including Ireland and China, caused a massive population increase. Slums developed including a temporary "tent city" established on the southern banks of the Yarra, the Little Lonsdale district and at Chinatown. The population growth and flow of gold into the city helped stimulate a program of grand civic building beginning with the design and construction of many of Melbourne's surviving institutional buildings including Parliament House, the Treasury Building and Treasury Reserve, the Old Melbourne Gaol, Victoria Barracks, the State Library, Supreme Court, University, General Post Office, and Government House, the Melbourne Town Hall, St Paul's, St Patrick's cathedrals and several major markets including the surviving Queen Victoria Market. The city's inner suburbs were planned, to be linked by boulevards and gardens. Melbourne had become a major finance centre, home to several banks, the Royal Mint to Australia's first stock exchange in 1861.[30] Before the arrival of white settlers, the indigenous population in the district was estimated at 15,000, but following settlement the number had fallen to less than 800,[31] and continued to decline with an estimated 80% decrease by 1863, due primarily to introduced diseases, particularly smallpox.[23]

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Married dating in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. About 40-50% of the sugar daddies on tryhookup.com are married but looking, or are married seeking an extra-marital affair or a mistress lover. Unlike other married dating websites such as AshleyMadison.com or Philanders.com or MarriedButLooking.com, tryhookup.com does not exclusively cater to married dating or cheating arrangements. But, since an arranged relationship does sometime involve married people, it’s not surprising many who are married but looking use our website in search of their perfect discreet affair. Our founder is often asked by the Media if he supports extramarital affairs – his answer is that while he does not make any moral judgments, he notes that married dating isn’t for everyone. However, that said, tryhookup.com does have 50-60% of single, divorced or widowed sugar daddies participating. It is also important to note that approximately 10-15% of members on a regular dating site, such as PlentyofFish.com or Match.com are in fact married and looking, except they lie about their real married status. An affair is sometimes referred as a form of nonmonogamy, infidelity or adultery. Where an affair lacks both overt and covert sexual behavior and yet exhibits intense or enduring emotional intimacy it may be referred to as an emotional affair, platonic love, or a romantic friendship. Other terms that describes an affair, include discreet affair, private affair, office affair or a secret affair. An affair also may be referred to as sex with the opposite sex dramatically. Affair may also describe part of an agreement of an open marriage, such as swinging, which sanctions some forms of extramarital sex and and not others. When one of the non-sanctioned affairs occurs it is described as infidelity and often experienced as a betrayal both of trust and integrity. Also: emotional affair, infidelity, adultery, cheating, mistress (lover), friendship, platonic love, or romantic friendship. We have interviewed many married sugar daddies and married sugar babies, as to why they seek a married affair. The average married Hookup tells us he is bored, or that sexual passion no longer exist in his marriage, that having an extramarital affair or engaging in married dating is the only way he is going to be able to stay with his wife. Yet, other married Hookup claims having a discreet affair helps add spice to his married life, so all in all, married dating helps him stay in his marriage. The married One Night Stand usually has a different reason for engaging in such tryst. She still loves her husband, but is looking for fun on the side, or her extramarital arrangement allows her to help her family out financially. In a recent survey conducted by Harvard, over 60% of its alumni claimed to have had an extramarital affair at least once or have considered cheating while married. It seems married dating and discreet affairs are much more popular than we all think. If you are going to consider married dating in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, we suggest using tryhookup.com for a number of reasons. On SA, members are able to have extramarital affairs without any strings attached. The last thing a person wants in a married dating scenario is to have one or more parties fall in love. An arrangement by its nature allows both parties to specify exactly what they look for in an extramarital affair, while avoiding the things they do not want – clinginess, attachment, or dependencies. Married dating is usually conducted as discreet affairs or secret affairs. Being discreet or secretive is what makes cheating all the more exciting, and one of the main reasons why many people engage in extramarital affairs or extramarital tryst. In addition, tryhookup provides many privacy and discreet features to allow cheaters the ability to keep their affairs secret. ;
Looking for a casual encounter in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia? tryhookup.com provides the largest selection of wealthy and gorgeous people in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia looking for casual relationships, casual dating, casual arrangements, casual encounters, discreet encounters, casual sex, casual friendship, or casual affairs. Unlike other casual encounters website such as Craigslist.com, Craigslist.org, OnlineBootyCall.com, or CasualEncounters.com, tryhookup.com is the only casual dating website to exclusively cater to wealthy and gorgeous people looking for a flirtatious fling. Casual encounters or casual sex, refers to certain types of sexual activity outside the context of a romantic relationship. The term is not always used consistently: some use it to refer to any extramarital sex, some use it to refer to sex in a casual relationship, whereas others reserve its use for one-time encounters (such as one night stands), promiscuity, or to refer to sex in the absence of emotional attachment or love (e.g., NSA or no strings attached relationship). Another term for casual encounters is a hookup which refers to casual sex activity. An extended hookup sometimes refers to prolonged instances of casual sex interactions. This is a situation in which the involved parties occasionally meet for casual sex multiple times, always without a long-term commitment. This is a casual relationship specifically for sex and without any emotional aspect. Other colloquial terms used to describe two people engaged in a relationship in which there is no emotional but purely sexual involvement are fuck buddies, one night stands, one night love, friends with benefits, and booty call. The reason so many people in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia seek casual encounters vary from individual to individual. But tryhookup.com is the best dating website for those wanting casual affairs and discreet encounters. Those seeking casual dating typically need extra excitement in their life. Originally, a one-night stand referred to a single night theatre performance, usually by a guest group on tour. Today, however, the term is more commonly understood as a single sexual encounter or casual encounter between individuals, where neither individual has any immediate intention or expectation of establishing a long-term sexual or romantic relationship. One night stands are commonly frowned upon in society because they have potential to ruin a person's reputation, it having the same negativity as adultery or fornication. Individuals participating in a one-night stand typically have not known each other long and have had minimal time to get to know each other before engaging in sexual activity. A one-night sexual encounter is not necessarily always a one-night stand; the crucial distinction is the expectation or intention that the relationship will not necessarily be extended beyond the initial sexual encounter. A one-night stand is differentiated from prostitution, as it takes place without direct payment of money and from a casual relationship, which may not initially involve sex and may continue long-term. A one-night stand can be thought of as an irregular and unplanned sexual encounter between individuals. The participants will usually have little or no contact with one another aside from sex. Thus it is possible to have multiple one-night stands with the same person, provided that there is no regularity to the encounters or planning involved in the casual encounters. However, where the people involved have a regular sexual relationship without romantic involvement, this is generally considered a casual encounter or casual relationship (also referred to using terms such as "no strings attached" or "friends with benefits" or a "fuck buddy"), and is generally considered distinct from the one-night stand phenomenon. ;
On tryhookup.com, you will see the field “Desired Allowance” or “My Budget”. What is an allowance? Well, let’s start first by defining what an allowance is not. An allowance is not money in exchange for sex. That would be prostitution and is strictly forbidden on our website. An allowance is a term coined up by us to mirror the allowance a parent gives to their child or children. Since we use the terminology of a Hookup and a One Night Stand, the term allowance ended up being the perfect phrase suggesting the caring relationship between a “daddy” and a “baby”. The Hookup budget and the One Night Stand allowance has always been a matter for heated discussion and debate. But the budget or the allowance isn’t a cash payment. Rather it’s the disposable income the Hookup has, and that he is willing to spend each month on his sugar lifestyle, i.e., going out on dates, transportation, or helping his One Night Stand with her credit card bills, college tuition, utility bills, car loans, rent, etc. While there have been many successful arrangements forged on tryhookup.com, we have also been told many horror stories of fake sugar daddies who promises his sugar babies the world, only to never be heard of again once he gets what he wants. So for the sugar babies who are expecting a rent free arrangement, or having her bills paid on time monthly, its important to work on your relationship with a Hookup first. A real Hookup who is a gentleman will not ask for sex on the first date, and if he does, he’s probably a John, not a Hookup. However, that said, it’s also important to note that many sugar babies aren’t really genuine sugar babies looking to find sugar relationships. The real Hookup is a gentleman who understands that intimacy comes after building trust, respect and mutual chemistry. The real Hookup has a real budget, i.e., real disposable income he can spend each month to pamper his One Night Stand. For those sugar babies out there, do be honest about what you are looking for. If you want some tuition assistance or someone to provide a scholarship for your college, say so, so the right college sponsor with the right budget can offer you an allowance for your college or provide you with a scholarship to complete your degree. If you want to have your rent paid, or to live rent free, then say you want a sponsor for your rent, or a benefactor who will pay your rent, then say so. The more straightforward about what you want, then the more likely you are to meet the Hookup who will give you what you desire. But the most important rule is to build friendship and trust first, and do not sleep with the potential Hookup on the first date or even on the second date. In fact, don’t even start a sexual relationship with a potential Hookup until he actually becomes a Hookup, meaning either pay two semesters of your tuition, signs an agreement to provide scholarship, or sign his name for a 6 months lease on your apartment. Similarly, we ask sugar daddies never to send money to any potential One Night Stand who asks for money up front. ;